• 5th floor, ‘F’ Kendriya Sadan, 17th Main Road, Koramangala, Bengaluru -560 034, INDIA

CENTRALLY PROTECTED MONUMENTS / Sites

Old Dungeon Fort Kempagowda (1510-1570 CE), a chieftain of Yelahankanadu, under the Vijayanagara empirebuilt a mud fort and laid a firm foundation for building Township which after three centuries developed into the modern city of Bangalore. Thereafter for a short period the city was occupied successively by Shahji- the father of Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire and the Wodeyars of Mysore alternating with the Marathas and the Mughals. Later, it was sold by the Mughals to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar of Mysore for Rs. 3 lakhs. He built another fort adjacent to the old fort and also built the famous temple dedicated to Venkaramanaswamy which is even now under worship. Chikkadevaraja was succeeded by weak rulers providing a good opportunity to Haider Ali (1761-1782 CE). During his tenure, Bangalore received utmost attention as a strategic point. The fort built by Chikkadevaraja was further strengthened by providing cyclopean stone veneering. Haider Ali also laid a beautiful garden known asLalbagh which to this day survives in all its splendour.
The Bangalore fort was bombarded and damagedduring the third Mysore War fought between Lord Cornwallis and Tipu Sultan. Some portions of the fort were dismantled at the behest of Tipu Sultan to contain the Britishers from occupying it. Although efforts were made to rebuild the damaged fort after the Mysore Wars, nothing remains now except a small round bastion and the facade of the famous Mysore Gate towards south. A couple of cells are found towards west as one enters from the east. The gate facing south has an arched opening. Remains of high-quality cut plaster work once embellishing the gateway could be seen in patches on its either side. A small temple dedicated to Ganesha abuts the wall. Some of the cyclopean members of the extant fort contain bas reliefs depicting man attacking tiger etc.
From a painting of Home drawn in 1808 it can be observed that the fort is oval on plan with a series of round bastions andtall gateways piercing the massive wall from cardinal directions. It also had a dry moat all around.
The memorial tablets available at the Dungeon attest that the dungeon was used for confining the Britishers by the Mysore rulers during the wars fought between them. One of the memorial tablet mentions that Sir David Baird with others were confined here prior to March 1785 CE. Another tablet on the fort mentions that Lord Cornwallis affected a breach through which he entered and took possession of the city.

Palace of Tippu Sultan The construction of the palace of Tipu Sultan was begun by Haider Ali in 1781 CE and completed by Tipu Sultan in 1791 CE. This is the only splendid structure now extant within the old fort. It is of two storeys with a large open courtyard in front originally with a fountain and small ornamental garden with choicest blossoms. The facade is adorned with stately fluted wooden pillars in the north and south. The pillars are connected by cusped arches. The walls and ceiling of the entire palace were originally painted and gilded, traces of which are found even now. The projecting tiles at the eastern and western sides of the upper floor contained royal seat from where the Sultan conducted affairs of the state. The zanana chambers on the sides had low ceiling, which were richly painted. A marble plaque on the wall describes the palace as an "Abode of Happiness? and “Envy of Heaven".

Pre-Historic Site The Iron Age- Early Historic burial site of Chikkajala was located in the open fields on the eastern and southern sides of the village. The burials consisted of cists enclosed within stone circles. The cists have port holes in the orthostats facing east and also have massive cap stones of granite measuring around 4x4 m. The circle was of irregular boulders some of which are missing. Some of the disturbed burials had yielded black-and-red ware, human bones and a few iron implements. This site was fully disturbed due to urbanization.

Fort-Devanahalli Devanahalli is mentioned as Devanapura and Devandanahalli in epigraphical records. The Fort was built in about 1501 CE, by Mallabhaire Gowda of Avati, with the consent of Deva, a feudatory at Devanadoddi and changed the name of the place to Devanahalli. Subsequently, in 1747 CE the fort passed into the hands of Wodeyars of Mysore, which was conquered many times by the Marathas. It later came under the control of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan and the present fort is ascribed to them. Devanahalli was the birth place as well as a favourite hunting place of Tipu Sultan. He also changed the name of the place as Yousafabad, however, this name never became popular. The Fort is roughly oval and east-oriented. The fortification walls are veneered with dressed masonry has as many as 12 semi-circular bastions at regular intervals. The bastions are provided with gun points built in brick and lime. A spacious battlement is provided towards the inner side of the fortification. The fort is provided with entrances in east and west decorated with cut plaster work.

Birth Place of Tipu Sultan Devanahalli, marks the birth place of Tipu Sultan (circa 1782-1799 CE), the well known ruler of Mysore. The memorial located about 150 m south-west of the fort is traditionally identified as the spot where Tipu Sultan was born. A four-pillared arched structure which rests on a square platform within a masonry enclosure having entrance from the east is the only remains available.

Pre-Historic Site The Iron Age- Early Historic burial site at Hejjala consisted of cists enclosed within stone circles and dolmens. The chambers of dolmens and cists were covered with massive granite capstones. From a few disturbed megaliths, black-and-red ware pottery and a few iron implements had been found. This site was fully disturbed due to urbanization.

Pre-Historic Site The Iron Age- Early Historic site at Managondanahalli covers an area of 125 acres on the foot of a granite hillock. The site consists of Iron Age burials such as menhirs, cists with stone circles, stone circles with cairn packing. The menhirs of irregular granite blocks are huge and some of them are associated with port holed cists. It had been reported that two stone circles were opened and they didn’t contain any cist, while another stone circle had a cist and pottery were collected from it. Black and Red ware are reported from the excavations.

Pre-Historic Site The Site at Savanadurga was first reported by Branfill in 1881. The Iron Age- Early Historic burials at Savanadurga are found scattered on the foothills and forested areas. The burial types consist of stone circles, oblong cists enclosed within stone circles and dolmens. Some of the stone circles are reported as comprising of two or three concentric circles. The cists, in most cases have port holes on the eastern orthostat. The capstones and huge orthostats are 5 to 10 feet in length, 4 to 6 feet in height and 2 inches to 6 inches in thickness. Branfill has excavated few burials and reported pottery and iron implements. The area protected by ASI has only cist burials, while dolmens are found in the nearby localities.

Ramalingesvara Temple and Inscriptions The region of Avani is said to be the Avantika kshetra, one of the ten places of great sanctity in India. Traditionally, this place is identified as the abode of legendary sage Valmiki, author of the great epic Ramayana. To corroborate this a hillock nearby is identified as Valmiki Parvata, Rama, enroute back to Ayodhya after victory over Ravana, is said to have visited this place as Gaya of south and Sita is said to have given birth to the twins, Lava and Kusha here. An Inscription of 339 CE of the time of Banas refers to this place. Later inscriptions refer to this place as 'Gaya of South'. The huge temple complex is located in a courtyard having two entrances, one each from the south and east. The temples are assignable to the Nolamba period of circa 10th century CE and renovated subsequently during the Chola period. Of the temples Ramalingesvara, Lakshmana-IingesvaraShatrughna-lingesvara, Anjaneyesvara, Sugrivesvara etc., the Lakshmana-lingesvara temple is the most ornate. The navaranga pillars have relief sculptures and the ceiling has Uma-Mahesvara surrounded by Dikpalas. The linga in the garbhagriha is the largest. The south Mahadvara is of the Chola period. The ceiling of the Bharateswara temple also has Uma-Mahesawara surrounded by Dikpalakas. In the navaranga of the Parvathi temple stand two highly ornamented figures about 4.5’™ and 4’™ high, respectively with bears and mustaches, which are said to represent the brothers Ilavanti Raya and vasudara Raya. On the north outer wall of the Laxmaneswara temple is a seated figure with rudraksha necklace, representing tribhauvanakarta, the famous guru of the 10th century CE. Lable to the right of the figure gives the name. On the exterior, the adhishthanahas five mouldings, ornamented with friezes of elephants, lions, yalis and makara heads. The wall is relieved by pilasters and sculptures of yakshas, dvarapalas, Siva. Bhairava, Bhairavi, Vishnu. Ganesha etc. The Ramesvara temple on plan has a garbhagriha, anantarala and a navaranga. The pillars in the navaranga are of the ornate type. The adhishthana has mouldings decorated with kirtimukha and lions. The walls have pilasters surmounted by Dravida towers.

Birth Place of HaiderAli Budikote is situated amidst granite hillocks. It accommodated a small fort in its heyday which is evident from the remains of the fort walls and bastions. Amidst boulders, a small open area is identified as the place of birth of the illustrious ruler Haider Ali in 1722 CE. A small platform with a tablet indicating the spot is enclosed by a masonry compound wall with an entrance.

Pre-Historic Site The site at Hunkunda spreads to an area of about 1.5 km. It has been reported that potsherds of Neolithic to Early Historic period were collected from the site as surface finds. A few Neoliths were also reported from the site. The Iron Age-Early Historic period is represented by stone circles and Black and Red ware pottery. In the absence of excavations a stratigraphy cannot be worked out. Several caves and rock shelters are also noticed near the site. The name Porkundam, meaning golden hill, which is the Tamil equivalent of Hungunda is mentioned in an ancient Tamil inscription near the Someshvara.

Kolaramma Temple The Kolaramma temple was in existence at least from the time of the Cholas as known from an epigraph of the reign of Rajaraja mentioning some grants to the temple and another dated 1030 CE referring to the construction of a mandapa by Rajendra Chola I. The plan of the temple indicates two shrines. The main shrine of Kolaramma faces east whereas the larger shrine faces north. Both the temples share a common mandapa. The treatment of walls with slender pilasters of the main shrine and a large image of Chamunda flanked by Virabhadra and Ganapati are noteworthy. The garbhagriha adhisthanamouldings and the pilastered wall are covered with numerous inscriptions in Tamil characters. Facing east, the temple has an austere mahadvara ornamented with Gajalakshmi in green stone on the lintel while its pillars inside have sculptured figures on all sides. The inner mahadvara is connected to a prakara. In the prakara, are several shrines in addition to a large pillared mandapa. The garbhagriha has stone images of Saptamatrikas with Dakshinamurti to the right and Vinayaka to the left. The main image of Chamunda faces south and is worshipped as the chief deity Kolaramma. In the southern cell are the stucco colossi of the Saptarnatrikas and the utsavamurti of Kolaramma.

Somesvara Temple The Someshwara temple is an ornate Siva temple of the typical Dravidian style. The temple is assignable to the early Vijayanagara period (14th century CE). It is known for a high mahadvara and a tall brick and stucco tower over it. The temple has a garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a large pillared mukhamandapa, all enclosed by a cloistered prakara.Theadhishthana of the main temple is treated with the conventional mouldings, the upper one treated with friezes of elephants, dwarfs and squatting lions. The wall of the main temple is elaborately decorated with kumbha pilasters in the recesses and slender pilaster turrets. The Kalyanamandapa situated to the south-west is an exquisitely beautiful compact structure well known for intricate workmanship on granite. The small shrine towards the north-west is dedicated to Amman. A Dravidasikhara of moderate size is provided over the garbhagriha of both the shrines.

Maqbara of Haider Ali’s Father Fateh Muhammad rose from the status of peon to become Faujdar under the Subedar of Sira and was given Kolar as jagir for his exceptional qualities as a solider at the battle of Ganjikote. He died in the year 1729 in the battle between his patron, the Subedar of Sira and Jaher Khan, Faujdar of Chittor. This Maqbara is the chief Islamic structure at Kolar. The structure contains the graves of numerous relatives of Haider Ali. There are twelve graves in all, of Haider's father, Haider's first wife, first step-mother, grandmother, grandfather, second step-mother, his own mother and own brother and four step-mothers. It is a rectangular structure with flat roof and accommodates the tombs spread all around.

Bhoganandishwara Temple The inscriptional evidence indicate that the Bhoganandisvara temple was constructed about the year 800 CE by Ratnavali, the queen of king Bana-Vidyadhara. The Banas, the Cholas, the Hoysalas, the Vijayanagar rulers and the Palegars had contributed to the construction of the temple and it ranged from circa 9th to 15th century CE.
The temple complex consists of twin temples dedicated to Siva as Bhoganandisvara (north) and Arunachalesvara (south). The oldest part of the temple is undoubtedly the northern shrine known as Bhoganandisvara shrine. Both the temple resembles each other in plan, size and construction. The temples consist of a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and a four pillared navaranga. The garbhagriha has ornate stone towers and enshrines linga. The sukanasi and navaranga are provided with sculptured jalis. The temples have individual nandimandapas in front and a common mukhamandapa. In between the two shrines is a small kalyanamantapa built of black stone intricately carved with creepers and birds. Behind the kalyanamantapa and between the two temples stands a small shrine of Uma-mahesvara to the west of which an ornate stone railing connects the two temples.
The western part of the mukhamantapa with highly ornamented squarish pillars is borne on a platform which is about 3 feet high and is built connecting the two Nandi shrines. The eastern part of the mukhamantapa consists of a spacious patalankana and two L shaped jagali platforms. An interesting object in the patalankana is a large monolithic stone umbrella. Three smaller shrines of Kamathesvara and the goddesses Apita-kuchalamba and Girijamba are also found inside the temple complex.
The temple complex is enclosed in a cloistered prakara measuring 112.8m x 76.2m with double mahadvara, which formerly had a tall brick tower. The other structures in the temple complex includes a vasantamandapa, tulabharamandapa and three stepped tanks located on the north, north east and south east of the temple complex.

Tipu Sultan’s Lodge Nandi hills is located at a height of 1478m Above Sea Level. As many as six rivers such as the Palar, North and South Pennar, Chitravati, Arkavati and Papagni originate in and around this hillock. Traditionally, this place is called 'Kushmandagiri' for, the sage Kushmanda performed austerities here. The Gangas enjoy the epithet of lords of Nandagiri after this hillock. The Jaina antiquity of the place is attested by a Shravana-tirtha. The place name Anandagiri (Hill of Pleasure) was changed into Nandagiri hill of Nandi, the vehicle of Shiva during the time of the Cholas. The hillock was extensively fortified by the chiefs of Chikballapur and further strengthened by Haider and Tipu after they took it from the Maratha Madhava Rao in 1770 CE. Lord Cornwallis captured Nandidurga in 1791 CE and later it was converted into a hill resort by the British officers. Tipu's lodge is a rectangular two-storeyed structure built in east-west orientation measuring 12m x 7m and is situated within a fortified area on the summit of the hill. Constructed of brick, mortar and wood, it has a series of compartments. Towards the east end there is a flight of steps leading to a verandah which in turn leads to the rooms built in the north. The walls accommodate niches and originally appear to have been decorated with paintings. The verandah has pierced balustrades. Tipu Sultan is said to have stayed in this building whenever he visited the place during expedition/hunting.

Fort Madhugiri was part of the domain of the Gangas and later came under the rule of the Nolambas. The erection of the original fort is ascribed to Raja Hera Gauda who hailed from a minor ruling family under the Vijayanagara kings in the 15th century CE. The fort was captured by Devaraja, the Dalavayi of Mysore in 1678 CE and subsequently Haider Ali extended and further strengthened it. The fort situated on the peak of a hill consisting of one huge mass of rock is considered to be one of the strongest in southern Karnataka. Built of cyclopean granite set in lime mortar and enclosed by parapet, it accommodates a few secular buildings near the foot hills including a pillared mandapa. There are several gates leading to the top of the hill such as Antarala-bagilu, Diddi-bagilu, the Mysore gate, etc. There are a number of springs within the fort. These reservoirs are provided with brick built steps. The fortification in the north had a series of bastions and battlements with musket holes.

Jumma Masjid Sira was founded by Rangappa Nayaka, a chief of Ratnagiri during post Vijayanagara period. The town was later captured by Ranadulla Khan, a commander of the Adilshahis of Bijapur. Malik Hussain, a provincial governor under the above rulers secured the town with a mud fort. The Mughals captured it and made the headquarters of a Suba and made Kasim Khan its governor in 1690 CE. Subsequently, it came under the control of the Marathas, and still later under the rule of Mysore kingdom under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. The Juma Masjid was built in 1696 CE in dressed masonry and has all the characteristic features of the Adil Shahi architecture. Facing east, the mosque is built on a terrace. The courtyard in front has a tank for ablution. The front courtyard has a low parapet with entrances in the north and south. In the mosque proper there are 15 bays raised on symmetrical cusped arches and floral medallions flank the arches on either side. At the extreme north and south ends are octagonal tall minarets. At the centre, three circular domes in north-south alignment rise above the central arches over the circular drum. The central dome is larger than the other two and all of them have brass finials. A prominent offset in the western wall marks the Qibla projection of the central mihrab inside the mosque.

Malik Rihan Darga Sira was founded by Rangappa Nayaka, a chief of Ratnagiri during post Vijayanagara period. The town was later captured by Ranadulla Khan, a commander of the Adilshahisof Bijapur. Malik Hussain, a provincial governor under the above rulers secured the town with a mud fort and also constructed a palace. The Mughals captured it and made the headquarters of a Suba and made Kasim Khan its governor in 1690 CE. Subsequently, it came under the control of the Marathas, and still later under the rule of Mysore kingdom under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. Malik RihanDarga constructed in 1651 CE is an exquisite example of the Adil Shahi architecture. It contains the tomb of Malik Rihan, who ruled Sira province as its Subedar between 1637 and 1651 CE. The tomb, square on plan, rests on a stone veneered moulded basement of moderate height reached by flight of steps. The verandah with pointed arches runs around the walled tomb. Paintings and lotus medallions decorate the wall. The eaves are supported by corbelled brackets with drops. The parapets have trefoil design. The small supporting minarets have octagonal shafts ornamented with two storeys of pointed arches. The bulbous dome above, built of brick and lime, is small but elegant, resting on narrow petalled neck and carries finials. A small mosque with two squat minarets situated behind the tomb is said to have been used by Malik Rihan for prayer. The open area surrounding the mosque accommodates numerous burials.

Channakeshava Temple Aralaguppe was part of Gangavadi-96000 province and was under the direct control of the Gangas of Talkad from the time of Rachamalla II (870-907 CE) and it later came under the Hoysala rule. The Channakeshava temple is a typical example of the eka-kuta order of Hoysala style of architecture. Built on a raised stellate jagati the temple comprises a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and a navaranga with an entrance porch. A separate shrine is built in the seventeenth century to worship the image of Narasimha which forms part and parcel of the frieze decoration on the southern exterior of the main temple. The adhishthana consists of fine friezes of elephants, other animals and puranic scenes while the wall is treated with sculptures of Vishnu in twenty four forms flanked by Sri and Bhudevi, Yaksha and Yakshi sculptures, and other secular sculptures, all under patralatatorana. Interestingly, many of these Vaishnava images bear names of sculptors. The garbhagriha has a beautiful chatustalaVesarasikhara with miniature turrets repeated similar to Bhumija style of nagara sikhara and with an inconspicuous griva and stupi.

Channakeshava Temple Nagalapura formed part of Gangawadi 96000 and was a flourishing agrahara under the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra. This ornate temple of Hoysalas, datable to circa 12th century CE has on plan a garbhagriha, an antarala and a navaranga, in east-west orientation. In the region of the garbhagriha, eleven stellate offsets are devised to increase the available wall surface typical to the style and the adhishthana is treated with six successive friezes depicting animals, scrolls and narratives from the puranas, Bhagavata and the epics. The wall distributed in the region of navaranga is treated with sculptural depictions of various deities most of which are of chaturvimsati Vishnu sculptures. The monotony of the deities is relieved by musicians, latangis and other secular sculptures all under patralatatorana. The garbhagriha is devoid of its superstructure.

Kedaresvara Temple Nagalapura formed part of Gangawadi 96000 and was a flourishing agrahara under the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra. This Hoysala temple, datable to circa 12th century CE, is entirely built of soapstone. The temple has a garbhagriha of star-shape, an antarala and a navaranga with an entrance on the south. It is similar to the Channakesava temple in elevation at the same place. The temple is known for beautiful ornate ceilings of the navaranga, animated friezes adhishthana, wall sculptures and lathe-turned pillars of the navaranga, which are typical examples of, the art and architecture of the Hoysala style.

Ashokan Inscriptions The edict at Brahmagiri comprising Minor Rock-edicts is the best preserved edict of Asoka in Karnataka. It is engraved on a huge boulder of gneiss at the base of a hill. The edict is cut on the undressed surface of the rock in thirteen lines covering a space of 4.98 m x 3.5 m. The script is 3rd century BCE Brahmi and the language is Prakrit.The edict is issued from Suvarnagiri at the word of the prince (Aryaputra) to the Mahamatras (officers) at Isila as per the command of Devanampriya. The edict was written by Chapada and his name is in Kharoshti characters. The place is identified as Isila as mentioned in the Edict.

Pre-Historic Site The site of Brahmagiri is spread across the pedi-plains and undulating plain area on the foot of the Brahmagiri hill- a granite outcrop rising from 600 feet above the surrounding plains. The site has yielded evidences of habitation ranging from the Mesolithic to the Historic period. The site was intensively explored by M H Krishna and his excavation in 1940 had revealed five cultural periods namely Mesolithic, Neolithic, Iron Age, Mauryan and Chalukya-Hoysala. Subsequently in 1947, Wheeler excavated the site and provided a relative chronological sequence for South India. He had identified three cultural periods viz, Period -I Neolithic-Chalcolithic, Period II- Megalithic, Period III- Early Historic (Satavahana). The Minor Rock edict of Asoka at Brahmagiri mentions the place as Isila and indicates the southernmost extent of the Mauryan Empire. The available dates from the site indicate that the edicts were meant for the edification of the people of Period II (Megalithic period).

Wheeler in his report has identified and documented the ‘Megalithic’ burial complexes and named it as Area A, B and C. Apart from these areas, he also records three ‘Megalithic’ burial areas as unexplored. He mentions that the entire area had about 300 cist burials. The area containing about 40 burials and reported by Wheeler as ‘Area A’ is protected by ASI. The burial types include cist burials, cist burial with entrance, cist burial with stone circle, cist burial with slab circle and miniature burials.

Pre-Historic Site The antiquity of Chandravalli ranges in date between pre-historic and early historic period. It is situated at the north-west foot of the Chitradurga hill, in a semicircular valley formed by three hills, the Chitradurga, the Kirabanakallu and the Cholachagudda. The site attracted the attention of the archaeologists as early as the latter half of 19th century, when coins were collected from the site in the course of digging a drain. In 1909, R Narasimhacharya of the Mysore Archaeological Department dug 8 small pits and collected antiquities and confirmed the existence of an ancient town. Subsequently in 1928-29, M H Krishna of Mysore Archaeological Department and in 1947 Mortimer Wheeler of ASI carried out excavations at Chandravalli. These excavations revealed three-culture sequence of (1) Neolithic, (2) Megalithic and (3) Early Historic (Satavahana and Kadamba). The Neolithic culture is represented by celts, grey and red ware, handmade and wheel thrown, associated with circular houses with post holes. The Megalithic culture is represented by the occurrence of black and red ware of various types, iron implements, beads of terracotta and semi-precious stones, animal figures of terracotta etc. Cist burials were also encountered. The Early Historic period is represented by russet coated painted ware, polished red ware, Rouletted ware and Roman amphora, coins in potin of Satavahanas and Roman denarii. The temples and inscriptions of the Chalukyas and Hoysalas are found in the hillocks, indicating that the site was under continuous occupation from the Neolithic to the recent times.

Fortress and Temples on the Hill This fort is known as the "stone fortress" (KallinaKote) and the first instance of fortification at Chitradurga is by KamagetiTimmanna Nayaka around 1562 AD. His son Obanna Nayaka, also known as Madakari Nayaka, declared his independence from Vijayanagara empire and wrested the fort. From 1620 AD onwards Chitradurga continued to be held by his successors until 1779 AD when it was taken over by Haider Ali. Coming under the class of giridurga, the fort of Chitradurga occupies a granatoid hillock. Popularly known as 'Yelusuttinakote', the fort has seven lines of defense with bastions of various shapes at regular intervals of which three are at the foot of the hill and the remaining four over the hill. The outermost wall has four gateways, one on each side. Zig-zag entrances are provided through these seven lines of fortification with batteries and magazines. The height of the wall of each line varies from 8 to 15 m. At places brick walls of 1.21-1.82 m are also used to add to the height. The three outer walls of defense are provided with deep broad moats. The fortification once had nineteen gateways, thirty eight postern-gates, thirty five secret entrances. Much of the fort was strengthened by Haider and Tipu in stone. Inside these fortifications, there are shrines dedicated to SampigeSiddeshwara, Hidimbeswara, Phalguneshwara, Gopalakrishna, Ganesa, Anjaneya and Ekanatheshwari. Secular structures JikeMurugharajendraMatha and subsidiary structures like granary, oil tanksand massive grinding stones are also found. The ruins of palaces built in mud are also encountered. To facilitate the collection of rain water, there were many natural and stone built tanks.

Inscription and Jattinga Ramesvara Temple A rock inscription of Asoka, comprising Minor Rock-edicts I and II, has been found here. The edict is inscribed on an irregular surface of rock, facing north-east. The floor on which the inscription is incised is in front of the steps leading to the JatingaRamesvara temple. The edict has 28 lines covering a space of 5.33 x 1.97 m. The edict refers to the message issued in the name of Devanampriya and contains the greetings of the prince (Aryaputra) to the Mahamatras. It is in Brahmi script of third century BCE The edict is exactly similar to the one at Brahmagiri, six km away. The temple of JatingaRamesvara, was originally a brick structure. Later converted into a stone temple and repaired in 962 CE.

Akka-Tangi Temple and Ashokan Inscription Emmetammana Gundu Siddapura is situated at a distance of 2km west of Brahmagiri where a minor rock edict of Asoka is found. The Asokan inscription is engraved on a ledge, facing south amidst granite outcrops. It consists of 22 lines and is engraved on the peeling horizontal surface of the rock covering a space of 4.11 x 2.44 m. The edict refers to the place name Suvarnagiri from where it was issued through the prince (Aryaputra). It has a message issued by Devanampriya to the officers called Mahamatras stationed at Islia. The text of Siddapur Edict is exactly similar to that of Brahmagiri. The place Islia is generally identified with Brahmagiri itself. The objective of the edict is to urge all classes of people to inculcate pious duties. The Akka Tangi temple, dedicated to Siva, was built by two sisters. It is a modest temple of 12th- 13th century CE. In plan it has a garbhagriha, an ardhamandapa and a pillared mahamandapa with its entrance provided with kakshasana. On the austere adhisthana rises the plain wall and a flat roof.

Fort The hill fort of Channagiri is located to the west of the present Channagiri town. The layout comprises of two masonry walls set in mud mortar defended by moats. The main gate is towards the north, where the gradient is lowest. Roughly ovalish, the fort wall is punctuated with seven bastions and two circular watch towers. At the top is a natural depression and the rain water collected here forms the source of water. Towards the north-east, there is a rock-cut pond with stone steps. The 136.50 m area available at the top has several basements of secular structures. An 18th century CE temple housing an image of Vishnu as 'Bete-Ranganatha Swamy' (holding bow and arrow) is also located in the Fort.

Musaffirkhana and Honda The large pond (Honda) was built by HiriyaHanumappa Nayaka son of Kengappa nayaka in 16thcentury CE. The sides of the pond is veneered with granite steps. Out of the eight towers at the cardinal points, only six are intact and in various stages of preservation. The most striking feature of the pond is its ornate pavilion built on a square plinth with an arched entrance which has a flight of steps leading to the first tier. The first tier is an open pavilion with slender pillars at the periphery and austere railings in between. Towards the cardinal directions are elegant arched pavilions supported by a heavy stone, pushpapotika, corbels. The second tier is repetition of the first one over which a moderate eaves supports a heavy parapet with slender minarets, the interspaces pierced with arches topped by foliate mertens. Two rows of elephants, swans and gandabherundas (mythical twin-headed bird) adorn the pavilion. The ribbed dome jetting out at the centre is topped by a finial and its neck is decorated with lotus petals bordered by guldastas. The Musafirkhana built on the western side of the pond is a spacious structure of granite having a large pillared hall with pointed arches probably used as a prayer hall.

Shahji’s Tomb The tomb of Shahji is located in a field north of the village of Hodigere and the nearby lands of which are identified as 'Layada Hola' (field of the stables). The grave proper is small, plain, set in an ornate garden. Near the head is a circular lamp-post in granite.

Hariharesvara Temple The temple of Hariharesvara is located on the right bank of the river Tungabhadra. It is a large structure in Hoysala style of architecture built in 1224 CE by Polalva a general of the Hoysala king Narasimha II. Many inscriptions speak of the endowments given to this temple by the Pandya rulers of Uchchangi as well as the rulers of Vijayanagara. Built in a spacious courtyard, the temple on plan has an indented garbhagriha, an antarala, a navarangamahamandapa followed by a spacious multi-pillared mukhamandapa with entrances in the north, south and east, all in east-west orientation. The navaranga has a porch in the south and north. The northern porch has been extended and converted into an antarala of another subshrine. The garbhagriha has an image of Harihara, 1.21 m tall, resting on a pitha. The left portion of the image represents Vishnu with the attributes chakra and sankha in the hands and the rignt half representing Siva has the attributestrisula and japamala. The kirita exhibits both Vaishnava and Saiva elements of karandamukutaand jatamukuta. The jatamukuta has crescent. The mukhamandapa is indented with the provision of raised jagati with kakshasana at its periphery pierced by two lateral and three cardinal entrances. In all there are fifty six circular lathe-turned pillars supporting a massive heavy S-shaped eaves. Abutting the main sanctum towards the northwest is another shrine and to the north is the shrine dedicated to goddess Lakshmi. Built into the western enclosure wall is another shrine of Hariharesvara. The prakara has two entrances to the east and south.

Vidyasankara Temple The Vidyasankara Temple, constructed around 1357-1358 CE in commemoration of the illustrious pontiff Sri Vidyasankara also known as Vidyatirtha, under the behest of Sage Vidyaranya, is a unique monument built completely of granite stone. It has great historical and architectural significance. The temple with a double apsidal plan rises over an elevated platform and has six doors fitted into the general framework of a panchayatana plan in east-west orientation. The elevated platform which is slightly greater in width forms a narrow open ambulatory round the adisthana of the temple. The adhisthana has six projected mouldings sculptured with friezes of horses, elephants, lotuses and panels illustrating episodes from the Puranas and historical narratives. The vimana is a remarkable structure made of three sets of cornices rising like a stepped pyramid. Each tala has ornamental drops on its fringes and the topmost one having small stone bulls facing the cardinal points. The pyramid is broken by three storeys of Dravidian type. The finial is a large composite kalasa with smaller ones surrounding the main. The tower has a frontal projection with a kirtimukha having an image of standing Sadasiva. The garbhagriha on the west houses a Sivalinga. The navaranga of the temple has twelve ornate pillars of the Vijayanagara type, depicting a zodiac sign and is a rare example exhibiting astronomical skill. There are within the temple, bronzes of remarkable beauty which include Siva, a number of Sivalingas made on a variety of semi-precious stones besides sculptures of Brahma-Sarasvati, Lakshminarayana, Umamahesvara, Mahishamardini and Kalabhairava.

Viranaryana Temple According to legends, the village of Belavadi was the Ekachakra-nagar of the Mahabharata times, where Bhima is said to have slain Bakasura. This trikutachala temple with all the three vesara shikaras intact is dated to 12th century CE. The temple in east-west orientation is dedicated to Viranarayana, Venugopala and Yoga Narasimha, the first one being the principal image. The temple of Viranarayana built towards the western end has a large pillared corridor which opens at east into the common sabhamandapa of Yoga Narasimha (north) and Venugopala (south) shrines, which in turn opens into a mukhamandapa at east. Slightlyaway to the mukhamandapa is a well modified mahadwara mandapa. All the images in the sanctum of Narasimha, Venugopala and Viranarayana excel each other in workmanship. Unlike the other ornate Hoysala temples, this temple is without raised platform or jagati. In elevation, the temple has a pada, adho-kumuda, a tripattakumuda, a kapota, and a pattika of dentil decoration. The bhitti proper is offsetted correspondingly and has pilaster. The superstructure over the garbhagriha is of the dravidavesara type with a stupi and finial. The mukhamandapa has conventional moulding and is provided with kakshasana. The eave is supported by the lathe turned pillars of the Hoysala type placed over the jagati.

Amrutesvara Temple This is a compact, elegant ekatala temple facing east, built in 1196 CE by a Hoysala General AmritesvaraDandanayaka under Ballala II (1173-1220 CE). The temple has on plan a garbhagriha, antarala, a navaranga, a mukhamandapa in the south and east. The mukhamandapa in the east is extended into a multi-pillared sabhamandapa which is the most ornate part of this exquisite temple. The superstructure of the garbhagriha is of the dvitalaVesara type with a stupisikhara and finial. The mahanasa of the sukanasi is treated with Siva as Gajasuramardana and over the gable top, the royal emblem of Sala slaying the lion is depicted. The sabhamandapa is provided with a jagati with kakshasana. The twenty eight ceilings of the mandapa are adorned with floral decorations. The mandapa is also known for its narrative panels of the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavata. Towards the southern side is a non-ornate shrine for goddess Sarasvati which is one of the best specimens of Hoysala art. Some of the ceilings of navaranga have labels on the sides below giving the names of sculptors who made them. Among the names may be mentioned Mallitamma, Padumann, Baluga, Malaya, etc. A Kannada inscription of 1196 CE in the temple mentions that it was composed by the renowned court poet "Kavi Chakravarti" Janna who contributed immensely to the Kannada literature of medieval Karnataka.

Channnakesva Temple This is a late Hoysalatrikutachala temple, dated to 13th century CE on stylistic grounds. It was built in granite with Kadamba Nagara sikhara. The temple on plan has three garbhagrihas, opening into a common sabhamandapa and a mukhamandapa. These sanctums have images of Vishnu as Kesava in west, Venugopal in south and Lakshmi-Narasimha in north. In elevation, the temple has an adhishthana with conventional mouldings over which raises the wall. The exterior of the temple wall has crude representations of various aspects of Vishnu in addition to secular sculptures. In between sculptural depictions are inserted slender tall pilasters and single pilaster turrets to break the monotony. The antarala of the western shrine is marked with sukanasa projection.

Isvara Temple The Isvara temple on plan has a garbhagriha, antarala, navaranga, mahamandapa and a unique stellate mukhamandapa with two lateral entrances at north and south in between mahamandapa and mukhamandapa. To match the stellate mukhamandapa, even the plan of the sanctum and mahamandapa are highly indented so as to arrive at an almost stellate configuration at sanctum. The garbhagriha accommodates a Shiva linga and the sukhanasi, a couchant bull. The mahamandapa has a raised square podium accommodating massive circular lathe turned pillars. There are eight devakoshtas built into the northern, southern, western walls of the mandapa. The mukhamandapa is stellate with a central circular raised dias surrounded by stellate jagati with thirteen circular lathe turned pillars placed at the periphery of the circulars dais, supporting a massive circular dome like ceiling which is exquisitely carved with trifoliate leaf decorations in concentric circles ending in a huge pending. The interesting aspect of mukhamandapa is the depiction of fore part of elephants inserted into the jagati inside as if supporting the mukhamandapa on their shoulders. In elevation, the stellate exterior of the mukhamandapa is treated with the conventional mouldings of pada, adhokumuda, a tripattakumuda and pattika. Each of these is further divided into small horizonatal friezes. In the region of mahamandapa, these conventional mouldings of adhishtana are crowned by a pattika of heavy denticular decorations before accommodating a sculptured bhitti. The mahamandapa has chariot like devokosthas at its north and south. The bhitti of both the garbhagriha and mahamandapa are treated with the sculptural depictions of the chaturvimshati aspect of Vishnu, which are labeled at the pedestal flanked by Saraswati and Parvati, Brahma and Siva. All these images are represented against massive multifluted pilasters. The moderate eave supports a lenticular decorated prastara in the region of mahamandapa and the sixteen turrets raising one above the other. The stellate stupi has a stone kalasa and in the region of sukanasa, the same scheme of turrets in two tiers is introduced with the gable top accommodating a stucco bull. The mahanasa has the usual composition of Siva as Tandavesvara.

Keshava Temple and Inscription The Keshava temple complex, is one of the most exquisite and ornate variety of Hoysala art and architecture. Two major events marked the consecration of this temple - the victory of King Vishnuvardhana over the Chola Governor of Gangavadi leading to the capture of the town of Talakadu in 1116-1117 CE and his adoption of Vaishnavism under the influence of the saint Ramanuja. This temple dedicated to Vishnu was consecrated as Vijayanarayanaand later became popularly known as the Keshava or Channakeshava Temple. The archival records indicate that in the early 20th century, some of the structures in the complex were removed. At present the temple complex has five temples—the Channakeshava, KappeChennigaraya, Vira Narayana, Saumyanayaki and Ranganayaki/Andal temples. Besides these, there is a temple tank (the Vasudeva Sarovara) and ancillary structures such as a granary, Deepa Stambha (lamp pole), DvajaStambha (flag pole), Vuyyale mandapa (swing pavilion), colonnades and mandapas.

The original temple complex consisted of the Vijayanarayana (Keshava), Cennigaraya and Viranarayanatemples dedicated to Vishnu, all assigned to the Hoysalas.

The Saumyanayaki temple, Vahana mandapa, Andal (Ranganayaki) shrine, naganayakana mandapa, deepastambha, vuyyalemandapa, yagasalaetc were built during the Vijayanagara period. Many of these structures were built using Hoysala materials. A kalyana mandapa, a mandapa and a pond was constructed during the rule of Mysore Wodeyars. The other important construction activities of this period are the rebuilding of the main tower and providing of a heavy parapet wall of brick and mortar tothe Keshava temple. The many additions made to the temple complex is an evidence to the continuous patronage the temple received from the royals, elites and others.

The main temple known as Vijayanarayana in inscriptions is meaningfully named so, since the consecration of this temple came soon after Vishnuvardhana’s victory over the Chola Governor of Gangavadi. The inscription on the east wall to the left of the north entrance of the navaranga (central hall) of the main temple records the genealogy and achievements of Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana and the consecration of the temple. It also records that Vishnuvardhana on 1117 CE, March 10, Saturday made a gift of several villages in Velapura-bidu for the worship and offerings of the deity of Vijayanarayana, Chennakeshava and Lakshminarayana.

This ekakuta (single celled) temple in schist stone faces east and has three entrances on the east, north and south. On plan it consists of garbhagriha (sanctum), an antarala or sukhanasi (ante-chamber), a navaranga (pillared hall) and mukhamandapas or dvaramandapas (entrance hall) in east, north and south sides. The antarala and the garbhagriha, are in axis with the eastern entrance. The plan in the region of sanctum is stellate and in the region of navaranga and mukhamandapa is an offset square. This is the first instance of the Hoysalas using and adapting the stellate form, which is later replicated and further refined in other prominent sites such as Halebidu and Somanathapura.

The garbhagriha has a 16-pointed stellate plan profile with bhadravalokanas (projected subsidiary shrine on the exterior of garbhagriha wall on cardinal directions). The bhadravalokanahas the two-storeyed devakoshthas with images of Narayana, Vasudeva and Madhava. The navaranga of Keshava Temple, Belur is unique for its artistic value, iconography and for establishing some iconographic precedents. It has 14 lathe-turned round pillars placed in the center of the hall in east west direction and 28 lathe-turned round pillars placed in the hall in north-south direction. The navaranga’s nine bays have different types of pillars. The central space with a raised circular dais is defined by four srikara pillars. Surrounding the central bay are ornamental pillars such as Mohini (an avatar of lord Vishnu), Lakshmi (consort of Vishnu) and Narasimha (avatar of lord Vishnu) pillars. Other pillars in the navaranaga are of the Indrakanta (stellate), Vishnukanta (octagonal), Chitrakhanda (square column with circular and octagonal members) and Bhadraka (square with offsets) types. The pillars on the central space have four bracket figures (madinikas) facing the center of the circular dais – Lady and the parrot, the lady in dancing pose, goddess dancing and Coiffure. These bracket figures are similar to the madanikas on the exterior of the temple. The navaranga has corbelled ceiling featuring gods and goddesses, scenes from the epics, dwarves, lions, dancers, musicians and decorative motifs.

Externally, garbhagriha, bhadravalokana and mandapas are provided with different treatments. The most remarkable art work of the temple are the madanikas (bracket figures) arising from the pillars and ‘supporting’ the sloping eaves. These 44 madanikas—four in the navaranga and the remaining on the outer walls were added shortly after the inauguration of the temple. Three of the bracket figures are males, the rest are all female. Earlier, there were 40 madanika figures around the temple and at present two of them are missing. Out of the 38 figures now standing around the temple, 18 bear the inscriptions on the pedestal giving the names of the artists who executed them. The madanikas present themselves as dancers and musicians performing to an audience in a self-conscious manner. The postures, gestures and expressions of the madanikas can be correlated with the conventions prescribed in the Natyasastra, a canonical Sanskrit text on performance. The drums, wind, brass and stringed instruments used by them can be correlated with musical instruments mentioned in contemporary texts such as Manasollasa and the Sangeeta Ratnakara.

Among the names of the artists inscribed in the Keshava temple may be mentioned Dasoja, his son Chavana, ChikkaHampa, Malliyana, PadariMalloja, KenchaMalliyanna, Masada and Nagoja. It is interesting to note that some of the labels give a details about the sculptors such as their native places, parentage, characteristic titles etc.

The temple’s superstructure, now missing, was of a bhumija style, a style of temple-building popular in Malwa and other parts of central India. The Channakeshava Temple at Belur was the first temple and still remains one of the few in south India to follow a bhumija mode rather than the Karnataka Dravida style that was prevalent in this region at the time. Kappe-chennigaraya temple

The Kappe-chennigaraya temple dedicated to Vishnu is built during the 12th century CE. The temple is a dvikuta (double celled) temple built in schist stone. It is erected on a raised platform (jagati) and is stellate in plan and non ornate in variety. The main garbhagriha (sanctum) at west, houses the image of Vishnu and its pedestal bears the inscription recording the consecration of the deity Chennakeshava by queen Shantaladevi. The other garbhagriha faces north and has the idol of Venugopala. The main shrine has an antarala (ante-chamber), while the other is without an antarala. Theantarala of the shrine open into a navaranga (pillared hall). The raised central portion of the navaranga has four pillars and each pillar supported a madanika figure, of which only three survive now. The navaranga has mukhamandapas on its north and east sides and the temple is entered through its doorways. The exterior walls of navaranga and mukhamandapa have mouldings over which is placed the kakshasana (seating with sloped back rest) andjalis (stone screens). The exterior walls of the garbhagriha have mouldings and a non ornatebhitti. The garbhagriha of the main shrine has on its cardinal directions niches with images. The chadya that runs along the entire temple acts as a separation layer between the bhitti and the superstructure of the temple. The sikharas (tower) that once adorned the temple is now lost.

Viranaryana Temple The temple of Viranaryanadedicated to Vishnu is built around 12th century CE. This ekakuta (single celled) templeis built on a raised platform (jagati) and has on plan a garbhagriha, antarala, a navaranga in east-west orientation. In the absence of mukhamandapa, the temple is entered from the east, through the doorway in navaranga. The exterior walls are divided into three sections- adhisthana, bhitti (wall) and chadya (eave cornice). The adhisthana has mouldings, while the bhitti has sculptures of gods, goddesses, attendants and celestial beings placed on pedestals and framed by pilasters and canopies. Some of the sculptures are framed by pilasters and models of shikharas of vesara style in high relief. The sculptures are mainly of Vishnu and his forms and also include Kali, Chamundi, Shiva, Parvati. The garbhagriha of the main shrine has on its cardinal directions niches with images. The chadya that runs along the entire temple acts as a separation layer between the bhitti and the superstructure of the temple. The sikhara(tower) that once adorned the temple is now lost.

Andal Temple This temple dedicated to Goddess Andal is also locally known as Ranganayaki temple. It is constructed during the Vijayanagara period using the materials collected from ruined Hoysala temples and is evident from the sculptures on the exterior walls.The temple faces east and is located to the north west of the main temple. On plan the temple consists of garbhagriha, navaranga and an open pillared mandapa through which the temple is entered. The navaranga has two niches that once enshrined deities but are empty now. The ceilings of the temple are corbelled with octagonal and square sections and a banana bud at the centre. The exterior of the temple consists of adhisthana, bhitti (wall) and chadya (eave cornice). The adhisthana has mouldings which includes friezes of elephants and scrolls. The bhitti at the lowest section has large sculptures of gods placed on decorated pedestals and framed by canopies of great workmanship. They are 31 in number out of which 19 are female deities. The upper section has kuta-sthambhas (miniature temple towers) shown supported by pillars, some of which enshrine deities. The deities represented here are Lakshmi, Mohini, Venugopala, Lakshminarayana, Trivikrama, Varaha. Two of the figures on the south wall have signatures of Bechama and Madhuvana – sculptors who executed them. A decorative frieze mainly with puranic scenes separates the lower and upper sections of the bhitti. Finally, above this is a chadya (eave) which supports the superstructure. The temple appears to have been built with the materials belonging to some other temple of Hoysala period and is evident from the sculptures on the exterior walls. Soumyanayaki temple

The shrine of SaumyaNayaki is located to the south west of the main temple. It is constructed during the Vijayanagara period using the materials collected from ruined Hoysala temples. This temple dedicated to Soumyanayaki or Sridevi faces east and on plan has garbhagriha, antarala, navaranga and an open pillared mandapa with steps on its east and south. It also has a pillared porch, a latter addition built by a member of the Dalavayi family of Kalala. The pillared porch has 10 pillars with square section of later period, while the open pillared mandapa has 22 lathe turned pillars of Hoysala period. The ceiling of pillared mandapa and pillared porch has plain flat ceilings. Thenavaranga, antarala and garbhagriha have corbelled ceilings without decorations. The exterior of the temple at the pillared mandapa and navaranga consists of adhisthana and bhitti (wall). The adhisthanahas plain mouldings. Thebhittiportion ofnavarangais plain except for the pilasters and at the north side two stone screens are provided which seems to be a later addition. The exterior of the garbhagriha is devoid of adhisthana mouldings. The bhitti is plain except for the pilasters and is surmounted by a Nagara shikhara.

A stepped pond called Vasudevatirtha caused by ViraBallala II exists towards the north west of the main temple. It has an ornamental entrance flanked by two corner towers. In 1397 CE Gunda, a general of Harihara II, rebuilt the huge seven storeygopura over the mahadwara at the east. Other minor erections such as tall granite lamp posts and vyyalemandapa were carried out in 1414 CE and yagashala in 1484 CE. Even during the rule of Mysore Wodeyars, minor constructions were being effected.

The whole complex is enclosed within a prakara wall and has two entrances on the east. The main entry, called the mahadvara is a five storied tower and leads to the Channakeshava Temple. The Elephant Gate lies a short distance to its north and leads to the KappeChennigaraya Temple. The periphery of the prakara wall has colonnades and mandapas.

Thus Keshava temple, the magnum opus of Vishnuvardhana, is conspicuous in terms of scale and embellishment in the whole of Medieval Karnataka.

Lakshmi Devi Temple Doddagaddavalli was founded by KullahanaRahuta, a merchant and his wife Sahajadevi and they got the temple of Mahalakshmi constructed in 1113 CE during the reign of HoysalaVishnuvardhana (1106-1142 CE). It is the only example of the chatuskuta (four-shrined) order of temples built during the Hoysala period. On plan, the temple has four sanctums in the four directions, each of which is connected by a sukanasi with the common navaranga. Of the four shrines, the east one has an image of Lakshmi, the west one a Siva-Linga, the north one an image of Kali and the south one is devoid of any image now. All the towers, except that on the Lakshmi shrine (east), are of simple stepped pyramidal variety of the Kadamba Nagara type. The tower over the Lakshmi shrine is dvitala vimana topped by square sikhara and stone finial. Interestingly, all the four towers accommodate the mahanasa projection crowned by the earliest examples of Hoysala royal emblem of Sala striking a tiger. The entire structure is enclosed by a stone wall having a dwara mandapa with a porch from the south.

Hoysalesvara  Temple The Hoysalesvara temple, called as 'Vishnuvardhanapoysalesvara', in inscription in honour of the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana, is assignable to second quarter of 12th century CE. The Hoysala rulers usually inscribes the construction of temple on the navaranga walls or on a slab set up to the south east of a temple. No such record has been found in the case of Hoysaleswara temple and hence it is surmised that the concerned inscription has been lost. However, an inscription dated to 1121 CE found near Kalleswara temple at Ghattadahalli refers to the construction of this temple. Inscriptions at Hoysaleswara temple, Halebidu assignable to the rule of Narasimha I (1152-1173 CE) records the considerable changes made in the temple.

The inscription dated to Saka 1043 or 1121 CE is inscribed on a slab, about 7 ½‘ high, found near Kalleswara temple at Ghattadahalli village, located about 5 km east of Halebidu. This inscription is of 12 lines, in Kannada script and language. It refers to the rule of HoysalaVishnuvarddhana and the construction of a Siva temple at Dorasamudra by Ketamalla. It records that the image named VishnuvarddhanaPoysalesvara was consecrated and granted the village Tavarekere to the God, free of all imposts. It also registers gifts probably of 50 kammas of flower garden, oil from the oil mongers and income from imports and exports. It refers to the merchant Kesara-setti, Keleyabbe and others whose names are not clear. Though the date on which the temple was constructed is not mentioned in this inscription, the record states that the grant of lands was made in saka 1043 or 1121 CE. This definitely establishes that the Hoysaleswara temple was constructed in or just before 1121 CE.

The inscription on the toranakallu of the southern entrance of Hoysaleswara temple assignable to the rule of Narasimha I (1152-1173) records the considerable changes made in the temple. The sculptor Kalidasi, made this makara torana at the request of Kedaroja, the master architect of the illustrious Pratapa Hoysala Narasimhadeva (Narasimha I). This inscription is of 2 lines in Kannada script and language. Another single lineinscription in Kannada script and language found on the basement cornice to the east of the Surya temple mentions that the south doorway on the east was made by Demoja.

Due to the considerable difference in the design of the four doorways as well as those of the doorways of sukanasi and garbhagriha, it is inferred that they were added later in the reign of Narasimha I. Further, the series of perforated screens were also added during his rule. This Shiva temple built of schist stone is an ornate dvikuta shrine in east-west orientation. The shrines enshrine Shiva lingas named after Hoysaleswara (on the south) and Shantaleswara (on the north). Each shrine has on plan a garbhagriha, a antarala (sukanasi), a navaranga and mukha mandapas (dwara mandapas). The Hoysaleswara shrine has mukha mandapa on its east and south sides, while the Shantaleswara shrine has on its east and north sides. The navarangas of both the shrines are connected together by a rectangular hall, a distinguishing feature of the temple’s architectural layout. Both the shrines have two entrances, one each on the east and the other on the north and south.

The garbhagriha dvaras are richly and elaborately carved with panchasakhas, door jambs depicted with Saiva dvarapalas and lalatabimbas depicted with Gajalakshmi. Above the garbhagriha had shikhara of Dravida style which has fallen. Both garbhagrihas have a 16 pointed stellate plan form with large wall shrines called bhadravalokanas attached to the north, south and west walls and forms an integral part of the temple.The walls of the bhadravalokanas, are divided into four tiers comprising a six-course adhisthana, two levels of niches to house deities, and topped by a Vesara shikhara. The antaralas are square and the doorways are elaborately and richly carved with sakhas, door jambs depicted with Saiva dvarapalas and the lalatabimba depicted with Gajalakshmi.

The navarangas are square and stands on four central lathe turned round pillars set on an elevated floor in the centre. The navarangas of both the shrines are connected together by a rectangular hall. The back wall of the navaranga is thick and heavy and have two indented square shaped projection at each corner. The corridor has a tower like projection at the back of its centre and a slightly larger one in front. Four doorways lead from the platform into the navaranga, two from the east, one each from north and south.

Slightly away from the respective eastern mukhamandapas are two nandimandapas built over the same jagati. The nandi mandapas houses over life sized nandi made of polished schist stone. The southern nandi mandapa is larger than its northern counterpart. Both the nandis are centrally seated in the pavilion marked by four srikara pillars. The nandis are adorned with garlands, clappers and bells on their head, body and neck. The northern nandi mandapa is supported by sikara, bhadraka (square shaped) and indrakantha (star shaped) ornamental pillars. The southern nandimandapa is supported by srikara pillars as well as Vijayanagara style pillars which are a later addition.

The shrine of Surya was built abutting the southern nandimandapa and follows the earlier style developed by Kayani Chalukyas. It originally had a garbhagriha, which is missing now and what remains now is only the antarala (sukanasi).

The temple once had a prakara (compound wall) with an imposing gateway (mahadvara) on the south side with royal emblem placed over. The superstructure, which in all probability was of the Vesara type, is also lost. A portion of the mahadvara, immediately south of the Hoysaleswara shrine, is reconstructed till the plinth level and mounted by a Ganesha idol and broken blocks depicting the Sala legend. Excavations to the east of the Hoysaleswara shrine has revealed portions of prakara and also the plinth of unidentified group of temples.

A memorial pillar with a dedicatory inscription to KuvaraLakshma who killed himself after the death of his King Ballala II is on the south west corner of the main temple. The base of the circular shaft has figures carved on it.

The temple is built on a plain jagati (raised platform) and it follows the offsetted profile of the plan of the temple. The jagati is flanked by miniature shrines with vesara shikharas (superstructure) at the entrance steps leading to each of the shrines and at the ground level on the north and south entrances. On the jagati stands the adhisthana, bhitti and the shikhara (which is now lost).

The adhisthana has eight horizontal friezes, beginning from the lowest elephants, lions, a curling vine, horses with riders, a second row of vine, narratives from the epics such as Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana, makaras and hamsas. The adhisthana of the bhadravalokanas (large wall shrines) is six tiered with the last two levels missing. The deep grooves between each register accentuate the monumental scale and horizontality of the temple. The narratives in the adhisthana friezes include the story of creation, battle scene with dying warrior, Kirata Arjuna, The fight of Bali and Sugriva, Death of Abhimanyu (chakravyuha episode), Nrtta Ganapati with dancing Siva and Parvati, Mahabharata war scene etc.

The continuous narration in the adhisthana frieze, featuring stories from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana, is a distinctive Hoysala tradition. Arranged in a clockwise manner, they are meant to be followed and 'read' by worshippers as they perform the pradakshina (ritual circumambulation) of the temple. This intricately carved multi level horizontal friezes of the adhisthana were introduced in this temple for the first time and became a standard feature in later stellate Hoysala temples.

The bhittis (walls), at the lowest level, are encrusted with large sculptures of deities, their consorts and attendants, drummers, dancers, musicians, fly-whisk bearers, ascetics, yoginis and other semi divine figures. These sculptures, nearly six hundred in number, are of a high class and possess beauty of ideas and art. A few noteworthy sculptures include Govardhanadhagiridhari Krishna, Bhairava, Brahma seated on hamasa, Gajasuramardana, Dancing Siva, Seated Ganesha, Venugopala, Trivikrama, Narasimha, Vamana, Surya, Varaha, Garuda carrying Vishnu and Lakshmi, Garuda and Snake, Mahishasuramardini etc A seamless transition between one sculpture and the next even at the edges and corners can be noticed and it represents a perfect amalgamation of art and architecture. A decorative cornice separates this uninterrupted band of sculptures from the section above; comprising of a series of ornamental, kuta-sthambhas (miniature temple towers) shown supported by pillars, some of which enshrine deities. Finally, above this is a heavily ornamental chadya (eave). The mandapas of both the shrines are covered on the east with perforated stone screens. These screens bear stone diamond motif and were added during the reign of king Narasimha I.

The interiors of both the shrines have identical pillar and ceiling schemes. The raised central portion of the navaranga has four elegantly crafted srikara pillars embellished with carvings from the base to the capital. The outer portion of the navaranga wall on the eastern side is lined with srikara pillars rising from the kakshasana (stone seating with a sloping back rest). The inner portion of the navaranga have a series of 16 and 32 pointed indrakantha pillars along with bhadraka pillars at regular intervals. Vijayanagara style pillars have been added at the entrance doors on the south and in between the original pillars to support the beams with long spans. The inner side of the navaranga walls on the west, the antarala and the garbhagriha of both the shrines are lined with bhadraka pilasters.

The ceilings are generally flat or corbelled and sit on square and rectangular bases, and are decorated with low to high relief sculpture. There are twelve niches on either side of the doorways leading to the antarala and along western side of the inner walls of the mandapa, facing the aisles. They once enshrined deities but are empty now. These niches have colonettes on either side of the opening along with a thick eave crowned by shikhara. The base of these niches has sculptural depictions of the Sala legend, the only place one can find it in the temple today. The names of sculptors are mainly inscribed onto the adhisthana or on the bases of sculptures. About twenty names of sculptors are found and some of these names are also found in Keshava Temple, Belur suggesting that they worked on both temples. The examination of stylistic traits indicate that two or three separate guilds were deployed for the execution of art works at this temple.

Several inscriptions record that dance was performed by dancing girls as part of ritual functions of the temple. The depiction of dance in the temple also indicate that it was a strong performance tradition. It was performed in the navaranga (pillared hall) of the temple, with the dancing madanikas placed on the brackets of the pillars looking down on the space (navaranga). The kakshasana seating along the eastern walls function as a viewing gallery, with few pillars to obstruct the view of the performance.

Kedaresvara Temple The temple is dedicated to Siva and is assignable to the first quarter of 13th century CE. An inscription of Narasimha II of Hoysala dynasty dated to saka 1143 Vikrama (1221 CE) refers to the construction of this temple. This inscription is of 35 lines and is in Kannada script and language. It registers the grant of seven villages by the Hoysala King Narasimha II, son of Ballala II and Padmaladevi to God Kedareswara set up by his father and his junior wife Ketaladevi for the livelihood of the sudra-parivara and the Brahmanas and for offerings and services to the God. It also gives a detailed account of the services and the shares of the donees. In this inscription, the date of the construction of Kedareswara temple is not specified. However, on the basis of the association of Queen AbhinavaKetaladevi and King Vira Narasimha II’s generous endowment for its maintenance, it is placed in the closing period of Ballala II’s career (1220-22). Whether Ballala II was able to complete the structure is not known, but he had certainly performed the consecration of God Kedareswara before he died.

This temple is one of the well composed ornate, stellate temples of Hoysala period known for its exquisite friezes and intricate wall sculptures which has depictions of both Saiva and Vaishnava pantheons.

This trikuta temple, built of schist stone, faces east. Though it had three shrines, its general plan was that of a typical single celled Hoysala temple with a star shaped garbhagriha, an open sukhanasi and an indented square shaped navaranga. The temple on plan has three garbhagrihas – on the west, north and south, a navarangaand a mukhamandapa. The interior of the temple is simple, while the exterior is embellished with beautiful sculptures and rich ornamentations.

The west garbhagriha is square and enshrines a Siva linga on circular pitha. The garbhagriha dvara is elaborately and richly carved with sakhas, the door jambs depicted with Saiva dvarapalas and the lalatabimba depicted with gajalakshmi. It also has a square antarala (sukanasi). The dvara of the antarala is elaborately and richly carved with sakhas, the door jambs depicted with Saiva dvarapalas and the lalatabimba depicted with Nataraja. The outer walls of the western garbhagriha are in full star shape and are depicted with different aspects of Siva.

The garbhagrihas on the north and south are square in plan. They were once enshrined with Siva lingason circular pitha. The garbhagrihadvaras are similar to that of the main western garbhagriha. These garbhagrihas do not have antarala and are directly connected to common navaranga. The navaranga is square and stands on four central lathe-turned round pillars set on an elevated floor in the centre. The central ceiling is decorated with lotus flower with bud in the center and other ceilings are decorated with different types of mouldings and designs. The mukhamandapa is oblong and stands on four pillars set on the kakshasana. Similar to other trikutachalastructures of Hoysala architecture, typical stellate plan in the region of garbhagriha and indented square in the region of navaranga is adopted.

The Kedareswara temple closely resembles the Chennakeshava temple at Somanathapura. The jagation which the temple is built is supported at the angles by figures of elephants facing outwards. The stellatejagati is reached by a flight of steps. The miniature shrines flanking the flight of steps at entrances are in different stages of ruin. The mouldedadhishtana in the region of mukhamandapa, navaranga and the two garbhagrihas has the usual friezes resting over a padamoulding. The friezes found on the outer walls are the same as found in the Hoysaleswara temple, Halebidu with one exception, viz, in the place of lions, the figures of horsemen are found here. But the figures are smaller and sharper in outline and sometimes more elegantly executed. The friezes have mythological narrations based on the episodes from epics and the Bhagavata.

Several of the figures on the bhitti (outer wall) did not originally belong to the temple. They have been procured from other ruined temples during restoration. The figures include Vishnu and his incarnations Lakshminarayana, Varha, Trivikrama, Vamana, Kaliyamardhana, Govardhanagiridhari, Venugopala and Rama. It also includes sculptures of Siva and Siva as Tandaveswara, Umamaheswara, Dakshinamurti and Gajasuramardana. Sculptures of Brahma, Ganapati, Bhairava, Manmadha, Garuda, Saraswati, Durga, Mahishasuramardini and Mohini are also depicted. Among other noticeable sculptures may be mentioned, two monkeys holding between them what look like a fruit said to represent a linga; a four-armed female figure resembling Suryanarayana, holding in the upper hands a discus and a conch and in the lower hands lotuses; Arjuna shooting the fish and Ravana lifting the Kailasa mountain; a male figure with a kaupina and snake ornaments blowing a horn; a standing monkey with a kaupina and large earrings and a huntress shooting a parrot. There are also figures representing drummers, musicians, dancing or dressing females and attendants. The number of large figures now found on the bhitti (outer wall) is 176, of which 90 are male and the rest female.

The name of two sculptors- Haripa and Maba are found inscribed. The name of the sculptor Haripa is inscribed in a figure of Saraswati placed to the right of the east flight of steps and that of sculptor Maba in a female figure on the south wall.

It is interesting to note that the temple does not appear to face directly east, nor it is inclined 18 degree north of east as the Keshava temple, Belur and Hoysaleswara temple, Halebidu. Its centre line appears to be about 15degreesouth of east.

A doorway of the Kedareswara temple, Halebidu is now preserved in the National Museum at Copenhagen.

Adinatha Basadi This temple dated to 12th -13th century CE, faces north and has on plan a garbhagriha(sanctum), an open antaralaor sukhanasi (ante-chamber), navaranga(pillared hall) and a porch. Inside the garbhagriha, the pedestal of the image bears an inscription stating that HeggadeMallimayya caused the image of Nakara-jinalaya belonging to the Mula-sangha, Desiga-gana, Pustaka Gachchha and Kondakundanvaya.

Further, the inscription on the doorframe of the garbhagriha gives detailed information about the construction of the temple. It states that HeggadeMallimaya, son of Prabhakarasetti and Jakkanauvve and disciple of Subhachandra-siddhantadeva, got consecrated the samavasarana image of Mallinatha at jinalaya of the nakaras (Dinakarajinalaya?) belonging to Mulasangha, Desiga-gana, Pustaka-gachchcha and Kondakundanvaya. After the consecration, he made a grant of garden and excavated a tank for the offerings and worship of the God. The land in Kondali alias Drohagharatta-chaturvedimangala in Asandi-nadu was obtained from Echimayya, the piriya (senior) – dandanayaka and granted for the worship of the God. It also registers the money grant by Adavalla -setti, the pattanasvami of Dorasamudra, the nakaras, the desis and the ojus (artisans) of the mint etc in the year Kalayukti, Uttarayanasankramana. The exact date of the record could not be inferred, however the same is dated to 12th -13th century CE. This inscription of seven lines is in Kannada script and language.

The garbhagriha of the Basadi, at present houses an image of Adinatha. However, the inscription on the pedestal and on the doorframe of the garbhagriha suggests that the temple was originally not of Adinatha, but that of Mallinatha. The garbhagriha has a fine pedestal with a lion seated infront and other lions in the panels. Against the back wall there is a fine double torana with the eight dikpalas. On each side of the pedestal is placed a beautiful small potstone elephant brought in from elsewhere and kept here. A standing image of Adinatha is now worshipped in the garbhagriha. The doorway of the garbhagriha has a plain but well designed lintel of pure black stone (rarely used) with an inscription recording the construction of the temple. Both the garbhagriha and antarala are square in shape. There are two canopies against the south wall of the antarala, both of which have rounded Hoysala pillars and sikharasof the Hoysala type. Under the east canopy on a base having a crescent moon is a beautiful image of Saraswati with rosary, goad, pasa and pustaka. The image under the west canopy has disappeared. In its place is now kept on a padmapitha a round panel containing the foot print of a Tirthankara.

The navaranga doorway has the usual ornamental bands and pilasters. On the lintel, it has Jain figures on the lintel with a lion on the pedestal. The navaranga has four square pillars with sixteen sided fluted shafts.

The porch is typically of Hoysala with its elephants, two round pillars, ornamented potstone ceiling and stone bench. The railings are missing. The temple has a very austere adhishthana consisting of pada, a short kantha, knife edged tripattakumuda and an urdhvakumuda moulding. The wall is plain treated with single pilaster turrets. The eaves are less conspicuous. The garbhagriha is bereft of its superstructure.

Parsvanatha Basadi This basadi was built by Boppa Deva, son of Gangaraja and consecrated by pontiff Nayakirtti-siddhantachakravartti, during the reign of HoysalaVishnuvardhana in 1133 CE. The construction and consecration of the temple coincided with the victory of the ruler and the birth of Narasimha I, thereby the deity being named as Vijaya Parsvanatha.

The inscription found on the slab placed infront of Parsvanatha dated to saka 1055 (1133 CE) refers records that Boppadeva, son of Gangaraja, erected a jinalaya named Drohagharattajinalaya of the Mula-sangha, Desiya-gana, Pustaka-gachchha, Kondakundandanvaya and Hanasogeya-bali, as parokshavinaya to his father. Further, it refers to the lineage of his gurus. It mentions that pontiff Nayakirtti-siddhantachakravartti, consecrated God Parsvanatha and after consecration, the Nayakirtti took the consecrated food (sesha) to Vishnuvardhana at Bankapura, where the king was victorious against his enemies and also got the news of the birth of a son. Thus, he was very much pleased when he met the pontiff and informed him that by the grace of God Parsvanatha he had obtained both a victory and a son. He, therefore renamed the deity newly consecrated as Vijaya-Parsva and named his son as Vijaya-Narasimhadeva. He made a grant of the village Javagallu in Asandi-nadu along with some streets and tanks to provide for offerings for the worship of god Vijaya Parsva and the twenty four Tirthankaras during three seasons and for providing food for the ascetics and also for repairs of the basadi.

This inscription also gives the genealogy of the Hoysala kings up to Vishnuvardhana and enumerates his conquests. Further, it contains the praise of Gangaraja, the senior dandanayakawho renovated innumerable ruined basadis and bestowed grants and caused the Gangavadi-96,000 to shine like Kopana, a Jaina centre. This inscription is of 82 lines and is in Kannada script and language.

This basadi built of schist stone, faces north. It has on plan a garbhagriha (sanctum), antarala or sukanasi (ante-chamber), navaranga (pillared hall) and mukhamandapa (entrance hall). The mukhamandapa is not structurally connected with the navaranga.

The mukhamandapa is a square structure, 17 ½ feet in height and has two large potstone (a variety of soapstone) elephants at the entrance of the mukhamandapa. All round the interior of the mukhamandapa runs a stone bench with a slanting railed parapet. The available records mention about the sculptures on the railed parapet. However, the sculptures now exist only to the south of the mukhamandapa. The eastern panels show a king in durbar with dancers and drummers, a servant goes to the queen, salutes her and she dresses herself and is brought by force by the Kings guards to the Court. The other panels show two ladies conversing with a man holding a sword, a lady with a parrot, and a male and female conversing. The western slab also shows a king in durbar enjoying a dance, a soldier and his lady with a parrot, and a lady at toilet. These appear to be fragments referring to the early lives of the Tirthankaras.

The mukhamandapa has in all, 32 rounded lathe turned pillars beautifully ornamented. The central square of the mukhamandapa is supported by four thick and eight thin pillars, which are all finely ornamented with beaded work. The mukhamantapa has corbelled ceiling with three octagonal sections, a square section and a square flat top slab. The square flat slab has a relief of the standing Yaksha Dharanendra with seven-hooded cobra over his head and a bow and a conch in his hands. The subdued Kamatha and his supplicating consorts are shown at his feet, while the Gods and Yakshas hover above the YakshaDharanendra. The square section has four sculpted panels. The north panel has two Jain scenes- one a king and a queen seated and another five persons meeting together and all of them standing in water half merged. The south panel shows a Jaina seated with hands raised, a kingly personage (perhaps an Arhant) and a herd of deer looking on. The east and west panels have depiction of elephants, horses and footmen, and dancers, at its corners. The octagonal sections are all embellished with intricate geometric designs, interspersed with scrolls and kirtimukhas.

The square navaranga has 4 thick and 8 thin soapstone pillars that are rounded, lathe-turned and finely polished and are the best known Hoysala pillars of this kind. The pillars have its usual cubical, wheel, disc, bell, pot and umbrella-shaped mouldings and squarish capitals. The navaranga also has six small and two large wall niches, which are very similar to those in the Hoysalesvara temple, housing the images of Tirthankaras. There are now 24 pedestals in the niches, but the images are all missing. The navaranga has a large doorway about 12 feet high, with a Jina figure on a simhasana on the lintel. The navaranga has corbelled ceiling with three octagonal sections, a square section and a square flat top slab. The square flat top slab is designed and carved identically with the one in the mukhamantapa. The square flat slab has a relief of the standing Yaksha Dharanendra with seven-hooded cobra over his head and a bow and a conch in his hands. The subdued Kamatha and his supplicating consorts are shown at his feet, while the Gods and Yakshas hover above the Yaksha Dharanendra. On the vertical faces over the lower octagon are the eight Dikpalas, each with dancers and musicians in front and soldiers behind. In the next higher octagon and the one above it and also on the inner faces of the slabs of the squares there are the 24 Jain Tirthankaras, each seated in yogasana with a Yaksha to the right and the corresponding goddess to the left, and with worshippers on each side.

The antarala is entered between two large pillars and has an image of a Jain goddess (Kushmandini?) holding flower buds and fruit, in the south-west corner.

A large plain doorway with a Jain image on the lintel leads to the garbhagriha. The garbhagriha has the image of Parsvanatha, about 14 feet in height. The image has a seven-hooded cobra over his head and his hair is short and curly and beautiful in its ringlets. The face has a benign sympathetic smile. The neck has three folds. The shoulders are broad, the waist small and the limbs well proportioned, rounded and tapering. Behind the Parshavanatha image is the serpentine body of the seven-hooded cobra. A standing male and female deity are on the right and left sides of Parsvanatha, respectively. Both have a three-hooded cobra above their heads and wear the sacred thread, kiritas, makara-kundalas and other ornaments. The female deity has four hands of which one is broken, while the other hands has goad, pasa and phala. The makaratorana with serpentine arch has the eight Dikpalas to the right and left with drummers and musicians in other convolutions. The ceiling of garbhagriha has a simple large padma.

The bhitti (outer wall) of the Parasvanatha Basti is plain, with plain and narrow pilasters, except at the base and the parapets. The base is ornamented mainly with a row of makara faces. A lion or a sculptured group which includes a bearded sphinx fighting Sala; Sala and lion, dancer and drummer, elephants fighting and makaras, swallowing gryphons and elephant-faced lions; dancing Mohini, Dakshinamurti, dancing female deity (Durga ?), makaras swallowing Yakshas, elephants fighting lions, two pairs of wrestlers etc can also be seen.

The parapet is damaged at many parts, however the parapet above the garbhagriha has figures of Yakshas; seated Jinas, a male deity seated on a lion pedestal, squatting goddesses among which may be seen Sarada, Durga, and Padmavati, a seated goddesses with chakras in both the back hands and padma and phala in the two front hands.

Santinatha Basadi This Basadi faces north and has on plan consists of a garbhagriha (sanctum), antarala or sukhanasi (ante chamber), ardhamandapa (minor hall) and a mahamandapaor navaranga (pillared hall). Instead of the mukhamandapa, it has a pillared porch of later addition belonging to Vijayanagara period. This Basadi is a plain structure and in size, almost equal in size to the adjacent Parsvanatha Basadi.

This epigraph engraved on the pedestal of the Shantinatha image states that Vijayanna and all the bhavya-nakharas of Dorasamudra got constructed the Basadi of Shantinatha and made a grant of the village Hiraguppe in Maise nadu, which was obtained from the King Narasimhadeva to the God for worship, offerings and for the renovation of the Basadi. The recipient of the gift was Nayakirti-siddhanta-chakravarti and his descendants of Mula-sangha, Desiya-gana, Pustaka-gachchha and Hanasogeyabali. It refers to Madhukanna, the srikarana of Konganadu, who was probably related to father of ? Vijayanna. It belongs to the reign period of Hoysala Narasimha and is dated Saka 1178 (1256 CE). This inscription has 5 lines and is in Kannada language and script.

The garbhagriha enshrines a 4.26 m tall stone image of Tirthankara Shanthinatha flanked by yaksha and yakshi. The stone torana is comparatively plain and coated with lime. Two flights of steps lead up to the back of the Tirthankara. The garbhagriha has corbelled ceiling with octagonal sections and a flat slab on top and are devoid of carvings. The entrance of the antaralahas two plain round pillars. The mahamandapa (navaranga) pillars of srikara type are similar to those in the Parsvanatha Basadi but are not ornamented, several portions are left unworked. The garbhagriha has corbelled ceiling with six octagonal sections and a flat slab on top and are devoid of carvings. Against the east wall of the navaranga there are two turrets with inscriptions consisting epitaphs of Jain images. The pillared porch built during the Vijayanagara period has granite pillars of square section. It also has flat superstructure with merlons.

The adhishthana mouldings are almost similar to the adjacent Parsvanatha Basadi. The wall is plain except for elongated pilasters. It is covered with austere eaves over which rest a simple parapet of brick and lime, obviously a later addition.

A large pillar about 6.10 m height with a rounded shaft and a yaksha in a shrine on the top is found infront of the temple. A Kalyani is also located infront of the temple, on the north side.

Kalyani Hulikere was a suburb of Dorasamudra (Halebidu), the erstwhile capital of the Hoysalas. The earliest inscription found at this place belongs to the reign of Hoysala Narasimha I (1152-1173 CE). His official, by name Lattayya, built a temple called Bhuvana-bhushanaLattesvara and an ornate Kalyani in 1160 CE at this place. Although no remains of Siva temple are seen in the vicinity, the tank still exists in all its splendor. This unique Kalyani built in stepped order leading to the water source has three prominent landings accommodating as many as twenty-seven ornate miniature shrines some carrying superstructure while others are devoid of it. Most probably the shrines might have been dedicated to twenty seven nakshtras.

Buchesvara Temple The temple built by Buchiraja, an officer under Hoysala Narasimha was consecrated in 1173 CE in commemoration of the coronation of Ballala II. It has a garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a mukhamandapa and a shrine of Surya to the east of mukhamandapa. The mukhamandapa is pierced with entrances at north and south. The southern entrance of the mukhamandapa has an elegant dwarapalla and chamaradharini sculptures. The pillars of this mandapa are bell shaped lathe turned and banded stellate type. The central sunken ceiling is highly ornate with concentric cusped arch designs. The mahamandapa has six niches in its walls which contain figures of saptamatrikas, Mahishamardini, Ganesa and Sarasvati etc. The adhishthana of mukhamandapa is treated with pilaster turrets and scrolls etc. T he walls of the temple is a total deviation from the conventional ornate variety. According to the indented plan the entire temple including surya shrine save mukhamandapa, has slender elongated pilasters stretched up to architrave level at the corners of the offset and the interspace between these pilasters are various deities under and against pilaster turrets of different types like nagara, dravida, vesara, and bhumija. The pilaster sculptures are used as narrative panels of the episodes of the Bhagavata like Prahlada, Arjuna shooting matsya yantra etc. The bhitti is treated with various other sculptures of Bhairava, Sarasvati, Durga, Umamahesvara, Narasimha, Brahma, Dakshinamurti, Kaliyamarda Vamana Trivikrama and Venugopala, etc. The vimana is a chatushtalavesara vimana with stylized hara of each tala meticulously treated with sculptures of yaksha, yakshi aspects of siva and Vishnu.

Fort and Dungeons The Balam (Manzarabad) Palegars had their capital at Maninagapura (presently Aigur). From these Palegars, the area was annexed by Sivappa Nayaka of Ikkeri in 1659 CE and ultimately by Tipu Sultan in 1792 CE. The fort was constructed by Tipu Sultan in 1792 CE at an altitude of over 987.8 m from the sea-level. The stellate fort overlooks the vast expanse of plains on one side and the Ghats of Malnad on the other. The fort point being always covered by mist commanding views of picturesque landscape around it, was named 'Manzarabad' (beautiful site) by Tipu. The fort is constructed of large granite blocks and mud surrounded by a deep moat all around. The plan of the fort is in the form of an eight-pointed star appear to have been influenced by the plan of Fort Willams constructed by the British at Calcutta. It has a parapet in brick mortar provided with cannon mounts and musket holes at regular intervals. Inside, there are magazines and a cross-shaped stepped tank to collect rain-water All along the northwestern and northern sides are arched cells serving as resting places for the guards.

Nagesvara and Channakeshava Temple The Nagesvara and Channakesava temples, dedicated to Siva and Vishnu are built shoulder to shoulder in east-west orientation are datable to circa 12th century CE on stylistic grounds. They are identical to each other in having a garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a four-pillared navaranga and an entrance porch. Both the temples inside the navaranga have devakoshthas, two each in the north, south and west walls. In elevation the stellate adhishthana of the temple common to both have the usual mouldings. The walls of the prominent offsets have either standing or seated images of various deities under the pilaster turret crowned by kirtimukhatorana and minor deities. In addition, the corner offsets have slender pilaster. The sculptural depictions illustrate Saiva, Shakta and Vaishnava iconography. The images at Nagesvara temple have their names on the pedestals such as Natha, SridevLakshmidevi, Gauri, Mahesvari, Brahma, Sadasivamurti, chitradhara and bhumidevi. The Channakesava temple bear sculptures of Garuda, Kesava,Sankarshana, Janardana, Venugopala, Aniruddha, Madhava in addition to Bhudevi, Sridevi and chamaradharini sculptures. In both the temples, the usual eave is crowned by cornice with sculptured dentil decoration and in the region of garbhagriha it is a tritalaarpitavesara vimana with the composite units of shala and panjara, kuta and panjara in each tala. The gable top of sukhanasa is crowned by the royal emblem of sala slaying the tiger and the mahanasa of Nageswara has Tandaveshwara under kirtimukhatorana. The mahanasa of channakeshava temple has a relief of Vishnu.

Laksminarasimha Temple The Lakshmi-Narasimha temple is a trikutachala constructed in 1246 CE during the reign of HoysalaSomesvara. The three sanctums house images of Kesava in the west, Lakshmi Narasimha in north and Venugopala in south. On plan, the temple has three sanctums, the western has sukanasi opening into a navaranga, preceded by a large mukhamandapa, a later pillared mandapa and a mahadvara, all set in a prakara in east-west orientation. The main temple, and the later period mandapa, are built on a raised platform. The western sanctum has three devakosthas at north, south and west and accommodates the images of Sarasvati, Durga and Harihara. Coming under the class of ornate variety of Hoysala temples, the mouldings of the adhishthana proper are treated with friezes of elephants, horse riders, kirtimukha scroll, narrative friezes of myths, makaras and hamsas. The most interesting aspect is that the mythological narrative friezes are exclusively from the Bhagavatha. The bhitti is similar to that of kesava temple at somnathpur, elegant sculptures are placed shoulder to shoulder under patra-lathatorana. The architrave is marked by single and double pilaster turrets with minor deities. The typical eave has a cornice with ornate dentil decorations and the prastara in its composition has a hara of sculptured kuta ,panjara, and shala. The superstructure over the western sanctum is intact and those on the northern and southern sides have been renovated. The western one is of tritalaDravida class with an urdhvapadmagriva and adhopadmastupi with a finial. The mahamandapa and other subshrines within the enclosure veneered with granite blocks and cubical pillars carrying flat roofs delineate typical late Vijayanagara features.

Sadasiva Temple Sadasiva temple was erected in 1249 CE. This temple is a unique hybridization of the evolved Hoysala style and the diffused Yadava type of the Bhumija style, having a stellate plan. On plan, the original structure consisted of a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and a navaranga with porches and a nandi-mandapa. A big hall and a lofty mahadvara in the Dravidian style have been added towards south, stylistically datable to the Vijayanagara period. The temple proper is built on a raised indented jagati which is treated with conventional mouldings. The adhishthana proper of temple has non-ornate mouldings. The wall is indented in the region of mahamandapa and stellate in the region of sanctum. In the region of mahamandapa, an inconspicuous devakoshtha breaks the monotony of bhitti. The eave of ordinary variety is crowned by different types of turrets and the superstructure over the sanctum even though dwarfish, is a total deviation from the usual Vesara style. Interestingly, bhumijastyle of nagara sikhara has adopted in tritala vimana. The ashtabhadrasikhara is composed of kutas over malas. The mahamandapa of sukanasa has a sculpture of Siva as Nataraja under kirtimukhatorana.

Akkana Basadi The AkkanaBasadi, is the only temple in typical Hoysala style at Shravanabelagola dedicated to Parsvanatha,was built in 1181 CE by Achiyakka, wife of Chandramauli, a minister, of the Hoysala king Ballala II. Facing east, the temple is placed within a compound with an entrance on the south. It has a sanctum, an ante-chamber, a hall and a front porch. The plinth of the temple consists of five mouldings. The walls are plain, except for pilasters and stambhapanjaras with miniature sikhara motif at the crest. The two-storeyed superstructure with a square roof and a finial is also quite plain. The projection on the eastern face of the tower bears all elaborately carved Tirthankara panel, with yakshas on either side. The kirtimukha at the top has added considerable dignity to this panel. The sanctum has a standing Parsvanatha image with seven-hooded serpent canopy and the seated images of the Yaksha Dharanendra and the Yaksh Padmavati with all their attributes and vehicles adorn the ante-chamber. Both the sanctum and the antechamber have elaborately carver doorways with perforated screen on either side. There are four ornate, bell-shaped pillars in the hall supporting the ceiling divided into nine elegantly carved compartments. There is a front porch supported by ornate pillars.

Gommatesvara Statue The colossal image of Gommatesvara (Bahubali), was installed by Chamundaraya, an illustrious minister of Ganga Rachamalla IV (974-985 CE). The image was sculpted from a tor, marks the culmination of the artistic excellence achieved by the Ganga sculptors. The magnificent sculpture installed on the peak of the Vindhya hill around 981 CE is the tallest monolithic image in India and measures about 17.7 m in height. Hewn out of fine-grained grey granite. It is finished in the round from head to knees. The depiction of ant-hill with snakes peeping out and the ascending madhavi creeper hide the fact of bold relief of the lower limbs. Exhibiting all mahapurushalakshanas, Bahubali stands erect in the kayotsarga posture on a blown lotus pedestal flanked by dwarf chauri-bearers. The head decorated with dakshinavarta the sublime face, the half-closed, contemplative eyes with gaze turned towards the tip of the sharp nose, lips bearing a serene smile, the dimpled chin. The long lobed ears, all enhance the grace of sculpture. The broad shoulders, the long arms dangling on sides, the fold lines on the neck, faithful delineation of the joints etc attest to the skill and mastery of the artist in executing the anatomical details in the stone medium. Surrounding the main statue are the stone railing, the pillared cloister with a series of c enshrining the 24 tirthankaras executed mainly during the Hoysala period.

Chandragupta Basadi Chandragupta Basadi is associated will Chandragupta Maurya who lived on the small hill called Chandragiri with Bhadrabahu. Stylistically, the structure is assignable to the 9th century CE. Interestingly, the structure has three garbhagriha facing south towards the Bahubali image on the Vindhyagiri hill. The central one has no sikhara and is flanked by two shrines. The three sanctums are occupied by a standing Parsvanatha at the centre flanked by Padmavati and Kushmandini in the adjoining cells. The antarala in front of the sanctum contains figures of Yakshas Sarvanubhuti and Dharanendra. On the exterior, the adhisthana is of padabanda type. The hamsamala beneath the kapota shows suave hamsas. The kapotanasis and the vyalas in the kantha above are badly weathered. There is a single tier sikhara with a padma cap, while the stupis are lost.

Chavundaraya Basadi The Chavundaraya Basadi, also known as Boppa“ Caityalaya is located in Chandragiri hill. It is assignable to 10th century CE and bears the characteristics of the Ganga period. The inscription refers to the construction of this basadi by Chamundaraya in 982 and completed in 995 CE. The temple has a samachaturasratritala vimana and on plan consists of garbhagriha, an antarala, a sabha mandapa and mukha mandapa with flight of steps. The square garbhagriha enshrines Neminatha on a pitha flanked by chauri bearers and reveals Hoysala features. The antarala is oblong and it has two rounded pillars at the front. The sabhamandapa stands on twelve pillars with four pillars set on an elevated floor in the centre. The other pillars stand on bhadrapada at the base with octogonal, sadurams. The central four pillars are polished, circular in section with capital, the potika mounted over the kumbha. The ceiling is richly carved and traces of old painting are seen here and there. The mukhamandapa, added in the second decade of the twelfth century CE, stands on four pillars with flight of steps and provided with kakshasana. The temple stands on adhisthana of which the upana alone is laid straight on the vinyas line, while the jagati, tripattakumuda, kantha and pattika have offsets and recess. The prastara has hamsavalabhi, the kostha lengths have gaja-vyalas facing each other while the thepanjara kuta have simhavyalas. The temple has an anarpita vimana. The aditala and second tala have functional shrine chambers. The second tala which is lesser square and has ambulatory space around enshrines a standing Parshavanatha with an inscription on the pedestal mentioning its consecration by Jinadeva son of Chamundaraya in 1138 CE. The third tala, with a passage around is less square, non functional and closed on all the sides. On the top of the third tala is the octagonal pindi of the octagonal griva carrying a similar sikhara. The sikhara has three talas consisting of sala, kuta and panjara. The sikhara dome is bell shaped, the eight faces of the sikhara have nasikas, the cardinal niches possess Tirthankaras. The sikhara has kalasa of black stone. This granite structure depicting Dravidian architectural features is a perfect specimen of Ganga workmanship.

Parsvanatha Basadi Dedicated to Parsvanatha, the twenty-third tirthankara, this Jaina temple was erected in the late eleventh or early 12th century CE. It is referred to as˜Kamatha Parsvanatha Basadi in a later record. This lofty temple has on plan a sanctum, a shallow low vestibule, a large pillared hall and a cornered porch. It stands on a high plinth of five mouldings. The walls of the sanctum and the vestibule are relieved with pilasters and projections flanking miniatures sikhara models at the crest, while those of the hall are plain. The parapet consists of leaf-shaped merlons and there is a miniature gopura over the roof of the porch. The sanctum enshrines a 4.5m tall image of standing Parsvanatha over a lotus pedestal, under the canopy of seven-hooded serpent. Relief figures carved on the base of the image are of great artistic excellence. There is a tall free-standing pillar (manastambha) placed axially in front of the temple. It was erected by Puttayya during the reign of Chikkadevaraya Wodeyar (1672-1704 CE). The square base of the pillar is adorned with Jaina images, seated Padmavati on the south, standing four armed Yaksha or the east, seated Kushmandini on the north and Brahma riding on a horse on the west. The pavilion atop the pillar houses four Jina images facing the four quarters.

Inscriptions More than 560 inscriptions distributed on the two hills like Chandragiri, Vindhyagiri and the township of Shravanabelogola are reported so far from this Jainacentre. The Inscriptions issued by various dynasties in Sanskrit, Kannada, Tamil and Marathi languages, ranging in date from 7th to 19th century CE. These are found engraved on rock beds, pillars, nishidis, walls of the basadis and stone as well as metal images. They vary from short label inscriptions to lengthy poetic compositions. Their theme is devotion to Jainism finding expression in the various pious acts such as obeisance to Jaina deities and teachers, pilgrimage to this holy place, observance of various vows including samadhimarana, installation of Jaina images and construction of basadis, granting of lands for their maintenance etc. Many of the inscriptions are epitaphs and quite a few of them are of Jaina ascetics. Some give genealogical account of the pontiffs, most prominent of them being Kundakundacharya who played an important role in the spread of Jainism in South lndia. Devakriti Pandita, Kanakanandi, Damananditavidyamunishvara and Bhalachandra are other Jaina teachers eulogized in inscriptions. A number of inscritions record ceremonial deaths at this place by means of Sallekhana, Sanyasana, etc. right from the 7th century CE.

Sri Vijayanarayana Temple The temple, dedicated to Narayana (Janardana) and situated within the fort, has been enlarged in stages at different times and is datable to circa 10th to 15th century CE. This granite temple has on plan a garbagriha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a mandapa. The adhisthana in the region of navaranga has the usual mouldings over which rises the wall treated with slender pilasters. The original mukhamandapa appears to have had lateral entrances in the south and north now closed by another pillared ornate mandapa. The temple is known for the decorated ornate mandapa in front with beautiful pillars supporting the bracket figures and warriors on lions. The image of Vijayanarayana is much smaller than those at Belur and Halebidu and there is a tradition that this image was set up by Vishnuvaradana. The images of the paravasudeva temple, now in ruins, are also kept here. The temple also contains figures of anantha, garuda, vishvaksena, hanuman and a number of flowers.

Sri Arkesvara Temple The temple was built by Butuga II (939-960 CE) of the Ganga dynasty as a fitting finale to his victory at the Takkolam battle. The temple has on plan a garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a detailed nandimandapa facing east. The adhishthana is simple. The austere entrance door has a solitary sakha of creeper scroll in the circles of which are dancing apsaras at the doorjambs and lintel. On either side of the doorway are inserted two vertical panels horizontally divided into four friezes, each carrying sculptures of drummers. The temple is known for its sculptural depiction on the pillars of the nandimandapa and navaranga in low relief. The reliefs on the circular pillars of the nandimandapa depict the subjugation of Chola commander Rajaditya at the hands of Butuga II who fought for the Rashtrakutas under the ruler Krishna III.

Ramesvara Temple This temple dedicated to Shiva is built during the Ganga period and is assignable to the 9th century CE of Rajamalla II (870- 970 CE). An inscription engraved on two slabs to the south of the temple refers to HoysalaViraballala III and certain grants made by him to the god Ramanathadeva of Narasamangala. The temple faces east and consists of spacious garbhagriha, an antarala, an ardhamandapa, mukhamandapa and detached nandi mandapa. The garbhagriha is square and has a sikhara of tritalaDravida type. The sikhara is of brick and stucco and is of great beauty and artistic merit, eleven meters high over a lofty stone adhishthana of two meters high. The mukhamandapa is square and stands on four central pillars set up on an elevated floor in the centre and twelve corresponding pillars. The ceiling of mukhamandapa has depiction of Nataraja surrounded by dikpalas on their mounts. One of the striking images here is that of a king seated and his queen standing beside him. A variety of reliefs such as hamsas, gajas and ganas also adorn the ceiling. The Nandi mandapa and other shrines dedicated to Soma, Saptamatrikas, Ganesha, Skanda, Durga, Bhairava and Surya are additions made during the Hoysala period. Behind the temple in a hall are placed life size saptamatrika images. They are exquisitely carved, beautiful and remarkable for their workmanship.

Gaurisvara Temple The Gaurisvara temple facing east was constructed in 1500 CE by SingedepaDevabhupala, a ruler of Hadinadu, a feudatory of the Vijayanagara dynasty. The temple hasa garbhagriha, an ardhamandapa and an open pillared hall with entrances on the north, south and east. The garbhagriha has a linga installed in it, while the ardhamandapa has images of Vishnu, Shanmukha, Parvati, Mahishamardini, Bhairava, Durga, Virabhadra and Ganapati in ardhamandapa. There are two small shrines with similar plan but less conspicuous. In front of the temple is amahadwaraof the Vijayanagara period, decorated with chains of stone rings at the cornersand hence also called Bale Mandapa. This mandapa has a simpleadhishthana with mouldings, the walls around are embellished with beautiful reliefs Andhakasuramardana, Bhikshatanamurti, Bhairava, Kaliamardana, Dakshinarnurti Siva Narasimha in different forms.

Dolmen Circle The Iron Age burial site at Doddamolathe is located on a hill called Morebetta and covers an area of 1.26 acres. The hill top and its slopes have more than twenty dolmens. These dolmens with port holes on its eastern orthostats are enclosed by circles of thin slabs erected vertically. A unique feature of the burials are the two big slabs with curved edges and conical top provided at entrance of each dolmen, appearing like arches. Some of them resemble anthropomorphic figures. Excavations of a few burials have yielded skeletal remains along with typical megalithic black and red ware, beads of etched carnelian, a gold-coated copper disc and rice husk.  

Fort and Large Masonry Elephants Kodagu attained independent political identity from the middle of 17th century CE after the establishment of Haleri dynasty. Muddu Raja, ruling from Haleri,established a new capital city and built a Fort as a symbol of establishing the power. He selected the site at a distance of about 10 km north west of Haleri. The original fort at Madikeri built by Muddu Raja appears to have been built of mud and rubbles and consisted of a series of bastions with watch towers of wood. The Fort plan resembled irregular hexagon and provided with one entrance and an exit from security point of view. The main entrance from east was built of wooden jambs, lintel and a massive wooden door which was probably reached by a flight of steps.

As the construction of the fort was in progress, Muddu Raja also took measures to build the new township to the north of the Fort, in a valley which housed more than three hundred families. It is mentioned that the place where the capital city and the fort were raised was called Muddu Raja Keri named after the King or Maradiyakeri i.e., town built on top of high hills (or Maradi). In this context it may be mentioned that a Ganga copper plate charter refers to certain geographical jurisdiction where grant is applicable. Of these the northern limits mentioned as “kaygamaradi? is noteworthy and may support the latter interpretation.

Further, the mud Fort continued to be occupied by the Kodagu Rajas up to 1782 CE. However, after the death of Mysore ruler, Hyder Ali, the control of Kodagu automatically passed on to his son Tipu Sultan. He placed small contingents of his army at strategic points along the Kodagu border and strengthened his garrison at Bhagamandala.

At Madikeri he ordered the reconstruction of the existing mud Fort in stone and lime. The new Fort was probably constructed in 1784 CE, and after the construction he placed his army general Zafar KulyBaig, as the killedar or in-charge of the fort, and named the fort after him as Zaffarabad. It was held under the control of Tipu Sultan till 1790, after which it was handed over to the Coorg Raja – DoddaVirajendra Wodeyar. Over the two centuries, the buildings in the fort premises have undergone changes several times, both in ownership and usage, and this had resulted in the changes to its physical structure. It is only the fort wall that has stood the test of time and now stands as a memorial to the rich history of Coorg and its Rajas.

Later the Fort came under British military occupation and the fort and its premises continued to function as offices related to the British Government in India. After Kodagu (Coorg) was included as a "C" state in 1951, the Legislative Assembly and the office of the Commissioner functioned from the Palace building.

The fort wall built of stone masonry (granite), varies in thickness from 4.5m to 6.6m in places and the six corners of the ramparts are strengthened by circular bastions. A brick parapet of alternating merlons and embrasures, 5 feet high and 2 feet thick, constructed atop the ramparts along its outer edge, encloses the wall-walk within. A variety of paving types are discernible today: brick paving laid flat and on edge; laterite – both exposed and finished in lime concrete; stone paving. Parts of the wall – walk are unpaved. Two meter high domed guard rooms of brick masonry are constructed at strategic locations atop the ramparts.  

Raja' Seat Mercara (Madikeri) was founded by Prince Muddu Raja of the Haleri dynasty in 1681 CE. Raja’s seat is an elevated spot overlooking a vast greenery. This spot was frequented by the royalty with a view to enjoy the scenic beauty of the valleys. It commands a thrilling view of the surrounding area. Standing in the open, the seat is provided with heavy masonry arched pavilion from where the visitor can see one of the finest and most enchanting views.

Three Jaina Temples of Stone in a Courtyard with an Inscription. This is one of the ancient Jaina sites in Kodagu region. The inscription found here takes the antiquity of this place to the 10th century CE. It was the capital of the Kongalvas who were the feudatories of the Cholas around circa 11th centuryCE. The Jainabasadisare dedicated to Parsvanatha, Shantinatha and Chandranatha Tirthankaras. Pocchabbe the queen of king Kongalva II, got the basadis constructed during the 11th century CE. They are built in a row. The Parasvanatha basadihas a beautiful image in Hoysala style seated in meditation on a padma-pitha below a serpent prabhavali. The Shantinatha and Chandranatha basadis to the left of the Parasvanatha Basadi are similar on plan. The images of Shantinatha, Chandranatha, Yaksha and Yakshi in the basadis are also of the Hoysala style. There are some inscriptions mentioning the Jaina pontiffs Sripala, Traividyadeva, and Ganasena Pandita.

Dolmen Circle The Iron Age burial site at Sulimolathe covers an area of 1.80 acres and lies adjacent to Doddamolathe to its north on the slopes of the Morebetta hill. The burials at Sulimolthe are part of the Doddamolthe burial complex. Typologically the burials consisting of dolmens are similar to that of Doddamolthe, with port holes on its eastern orthostats and enclosed by circles of thin slabs erected vertically.

The Bettadapura hillock representing the last span of Western Ghats is also known as Vijayagiri and Vijayachala. From the lithic records available, Paramabbe, wife of Ganga Bhutuga I, circa 7th century CE was ruling from this place known as Kurugal. The Gangas were succeeded by the Cholas, Vijayanagara and Chengalva rulers. The temple datable to circa 12th century CE belongs to the Chola-Hoysala period. There are many inscriptions in the temple one of them refers to a grant of 33 villages in 1586 CE by PiriyaChengalva. On the walls of the temple are nearly half a dozen inscriptions, of which two announce grants from a chieftain of Sosale. The temple on the summit of the hill, dedicated to Mallikarjuna, is reached by climbing nearly 3108 steps. The mail shrine comprising of sanctum, ardhamandapa and navaranga is enclosed by a series of pillared structures which are obviously later additions. There is a gateway in Vijayanagara style with a tall rayagopura at the foot of the hill. The inner ceiling of this gopura has paintings of Vijayanagara times depicting floral designs and pictures of some sages, prominently in black and red colours. The pillars of the navaranga are short and cylindrical and pilasters on the garbhagriha walls have Chola-Hoysala features. There are huge copper vessels of antiquity here to indicate large scale feeding of pilgrims and the enshrined deity is also called Annadani (donor of cooked rice) Mallikarjuna.

Pre-Historic Site The Pre-historic site at Kittur is located to the west of the village. The site is reported to have yielded hand axes and potsherds. The pottery found consists of burnished and unburnished grey ware that are mostly hand made; and black and red ware. The site along with 22 other villages got submerged under the Kabini reservoir during the 1970s.

Lakshmikanthaswamy Temple The main core of the Lakshmikantaswamy temple comprising a garbhagriha and antarala is assignable to the 13th century CE during the Hoysala period. Subsequent additions in the form of a pillared mahamandapa and a mukhamandapa were made later during the rule of the Wodeyars of Mysore around 17th century CE. The temple faces east and the adhisthana of garbhagriha and antarala have conventional mouldings. The wall in the region of garbhagriha and sukanasi (antarala) is treated with lmages of chamaradharani drummers, Tandava Ganapati, Dhanvantari, Kodanda Rama, dancing Sarasvati, Lakshminarayana etc., under patralata canopies. The superstructure in two talas belongs to a later date in brick and stucco with a short neck and a kuta stupi ending in a finial. An inscription on the dhvajastambha in front of the temple states that it was erected by Chamaraja Wodeyar of Srirangapatna in 1625 CE.

Sri Srikantheshvara Temple Nanjangud has grown to place of pilgrimage beginning from the Ganga times till 19th century CE. Srikantesvara Temple is the most notable temple at Nanjangud. There is an inscription on a slab near the Vishnu shrine announcing a grant in 1517 CE and the donor appears to be the father in law of emperor Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagara. The deity of the temple is also called Nanjudeshwara and he is described as 'Hakim Nanjunda' since an eye ailment of Tipu's beloved elephant was said to have been cured by administering the holy Tirtha from the temple. The sanctum is a dwarfish structure and its cylindrical twin pillars in the inner mandapa indicate their Ganga origin. To its left is the shrine of Vishnu and behind the latter is the shrine of Chandikesvara. To the north-west of this is the Parvati shrine with Sabhamandapa in its front. The Parvati image has Hoysala features. The mandapa in front of the original shrine was built perhaps during 13th century CE. The four brick and stucco sikharas on Srikanthesvara, Vishnu, Parvati and Chandikesvara shrines appear to be of Vijayanagara times. Later, many additional structures have been erected by the Mysore rulers and their officers and expansion work went on till 1900 CE. The complex enclosed by two large pillared cloisters has an imposing entrance carrying a huge lime and brick gopura with seven talas capped by a highly ornate gable roof.

Keshava Temple The Keshava Temple, Somanathapura located on the banks of Kaveri river, according to an inscription found in the entrance porch of the temple, was constructed by SomanathaDandanayaka after having received the funds from the reigning Hoysala king Narasimha III in 1268 CE. This inscription also records that SomanathaDandanayaka also founded an agrahara and is named after him. The successive Hoysala rulers as well as the succeeding dynasties such as Vijayanagara and Nayakas extended their patronage to the temple and settlement.

The inscriptions record Somanathapura as a prominent center of learning as well as religious, social, political, economic and cultural activities. According to an inscription dated 1300 CE, of the time of Hoysala king Vira Ballala II, the settlement is referred to as Vidyanidhi Prasanna Somanathapura-maha-agrahara (seat of residence of the learned Brahmins). Another inscription dated to 1550 CE, refers to the settlement as Caturvedimangala Vidyanidhi Prasannna Somanathapura (a seat of learning or residence of Brahmins who are well versed in the four Vedas). Inscriptions also refer to settlements dedicated to both the Shaiva and Vaishnava communities, reflecting the inclusive nature of Hoysala society.

The Keshava temple, Somanathapura is considered the last major temple building activity undertaken by the Hoysalas and is the culmination of the ‘Hoysala’ style of temple architecture.

This temple of schist stone is built in the center of a rectangular courtyard. It is enclosed in a prakara wall and is entered through a mandapa on the east. This trikuta (triple-celled) temple dedicated to God Vishnu faces east. The temple is entered through a series of steps marked by a plain doorway flanked by dvarapalas (door guardians). It has on plan garbhagrihas (sanctum), antaralasorsukanasis (ante-chamber), navaranga (central pillared hall) and mukhamandapa or dvaramandapa (entrance hall).The plan in the region of garbhagriha is 16-pointed stellate and in the region of navaranga and mukhamandapa is a linear stepped plan.

The three garbhagrihas, one each on the west, north and south, has the images of different forms of Vishnu. Keshava in the western cell is the principal deity; Janardhana in the northern cell and Venugopala in the southern cell are the secondary deities. Each of these garbhagrihas has an antarala entered through ornamental doorways flanked by dvarapalas. Niches topped by high relief vesara towers are set on either side of the western doorway. The garbhagrihas and antaralas have ornate flat ceilings. The slightly raised navaranga has four finely carved srikara pillars. The mukhamandapa on the east is accessible in the front by a flight of steps. The mukhamandapa is encompassed by bhadraka (square) pillars with a raised balcony with seating. The transition space between the mukhamandapa and the navaranga is defined by a combination of two srikara and two 32-pointed indrakantha (star shaped) pillars. The outer walls of the navaranga, antarala and garbhagriha are all lined with bhadrakapilasters. The navaranga and mukhamandapa have corbelled ceilings supported on either square or rectangle or octagonal bases. Each ceiling is unique in its design and features concentric rings of four to six tiers with intricate, rib-like elements, multiple lobes, rhythmic geometric patterns and sinuous floral components. In the case of certain ceilings, a complicated interlace design is carved separately in stone and skilfully twist-locked into place. A unique feature is the use of regional motif – banana flower in different stages of opening- as the central pendant of the ceilings.

The temple stands on a raised, moulded jagati (platform) that follows the temple’s stellate floor plan also serves as a pradakshina patha (circumambulatory path) for devotees. The jagati has a single flight of steps on the east that leads into the main temple. The steps are flanked by miniature shrines that have lost their shikharas (superstructures) today. The jagati also has sculptures of elephants at each of the points of the star (a few are missing) reflecting the concept of holding up the surface of the earth. The edges of the stellate folds of the jagati have sculptures of nagas and yakshas (several are missing), which are considered as the guardians of the netherworlds and their depiction reflects the subterranean world. The exterior of the mandapas is treated a little differently than that of the garbhagriha. The adhisthana (plinth) has six-tiered frieze beginning from the lowest a row of elephants, riders and attendants, parades of cavalry with horsemen, foliated creepers and stems with scenes from the epic Mahabharata, standing deities and maidens alternating with a line of single pilasters topped with miniature vesara and bhumija shikharas. Above these mouldings are placed the kakshasana (seating with sloped back rest) with sculpture panels. The sloping, external surface of the kakshasana (stone seating) is decorated with double pilasters alternating with sculptures and narrations interspersed with fillers in the same format of erotic scenes, dancers, ascetics and other figures. Above the kakshasana are placed jalis (decorative stone screens) and then the chadya (eave).

The exterior of the garbhagrihas is divided into three sections- adhisthana, bhitti (wall) and chadya(eave cornice). The adhisthana has six mouldings, from the base consisting of elephants, horses with their riders wielding weapons and many of them trampling an enemy under foot, decorative foliage, narrative friezes, mythical makaras (stylised crocodiles) and hamsas (stylised swans or geese). The narrative friezes have narrations from Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana. The bhitti has sculptures of gods, goddesses, attendants and celestial beings placed on pedestals. These sculptures are framed by foliated canopies and in the western shrine also by pilasters. Above the row of sculptures are complex pilasters supporting models of shikharas of vesara and bhumija style in high relief. There are nearly 200 sculptures on the bhittiand the majority belong to the Vaishnava pantheon. It includes the Chaturvimsati Vishnu (24 forms of Vishnu) and ten avatars of Vishnu that are depicted in the order prescribed in the religious texts. A rare sculpture of Dhanvantari, a minor incarnation of Vishnu, is also found. The other deities depicted include Ganesha, Mahishamardini, Shiva, Brahma, Indra, Lakshmi, Saraswathi, Manmatha, Surya etc.

The chadya that runs along the entire temple acts as a separation layer between the bhitti and the superstructure of the temple. The granite prakara (compound wall) of the temple consists of 56 small shrines that once housed deities. These shrines are located in the north, south and west and are connected by a colonnade of srikaraand Vijayanagara style pillars.

All the three shrines have vesara shikharas decorated with repetitive diminishing kuta (square aedicule of Dravidian style) and shala (aedicule of wagon vault style) elements, crowned by a padma (an inverted cyma recta moulding with lotus pattern as decoration) and kalasha (finial).

The sculptures carried on their pedestals, the name of the sculptors who caused it. Mallitamma, Baleya, Chaudeya, Bamaya, Nanjaya and Yalamasay are the prominent names. Two very distinct guilds of sculptors can be detected in the sculptural art of Keshava Temple. The first guild created short and sturdy figures with rounded faces and heavy crowns standing under luxuriant projecting canopy of intricately carved leaves and flowers and worked on the northern and southern shrines. The second guild created formally posed slender figures with narrower faces and smaller crowns and worked on the western shrine.

Keertinarayana Temple Talkad also known as Dalavanapura and Gajaranya in Sanskrit was the capital of the Gangas, under Gangavadi 96,000. The Gangas were succeeded by the Cholas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara and the Mysore Wodeyars. The Kirthinarayana temple built in 1117 CE over a jagati has on plan has a stellar garbhagriha, an open ardhamandapa and a navaranga with three entrances. The garbhagriha doorways are finely carved in the Hoysala style. The main image of Narayana is impressive and stands on a lotus pedestat in samabhanga. The navaranga is spacious, has lathe-turned pillars and a ceiling adorned by creeper scrolls, lotuses and other floral designs. The temple has a spacious inner prakara. In 2014, ASI has completely laid bare an ornate mahadvara mandapa and a couple of subshrines, balipitha and a well, all buried under heavily accumulated sand-dune.

Vaidyeshwara Temple Talkad also known as Dalavanapura and Gajaranya in Sanskrit was the capital of the Gangas, under Gangavadi 96,000. The Gangas were succeeded by the Cholas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara and the Mysore Wodeyars. The Vaidyesvara temple complex with mixed Ganga, Chola and Hoysala stylistic features is datable between circa 10th to 14th centuries CE. The temple on plan has a garbhagriha, an antarala, an ardhamanadapa, a pillared mahamandapa with an entrance porch or mukhamandapa in east-west orientation. The temple indented on plan also has a mukhamandapa to the south. The mahamandapa in the north has additional shrines for processional deities. The temple is built over a jagati. Its wall is treated with massive pilaster motifs with various deities of the Saiva faith. Over the garbhagriha is a brick and-lime Vesarasikhara. The navaranga has six central pillars. The doorway of the navaranga shows Hoysala workmanship and on either side are dvarapalas about 2 m high. The temple has a spacious inner prakara with small shrines housing sculptures of the Ganga, Hoysala and Vijayanagara periods. The Vaidyesvaralinga is held in high reverence. The tall gateway facing the main entrance has beautiful decorations.

Ancient Jaina Vestiges The earliest reference to this place is dated to the time of Ganga Akinita dated 559 CE. In the Ganga charters of 799-800 CE issued during the time of prince Narasimha, Artipura is referred to as Tippur and a prolific Jainacentre. It received maximum attention during the time of Hoysalas as evident from the inscriptions dated 1117 CE wherein Gangaraja, the commander of HoysalaVishnuvardhana is stated to grant the village Tippur to a Jaina acharya. Interestingly, one of the inscriptions at this site refers to poet Kandarpa, father as well as teacher of Balachandradeva who consecrated a Jaina image near the perennial pond. Bas-reliefs depicting the Jaina tirthankaras on the vertical face of the rock and remains of brick structures on the summit of a small granitic hillock called Kanakagiri are some of the important Jaina vestiges available at this site. Among the low reliefs in various stages of carving depicted are Adinatha, Suparsvanatha, etc. The brick structures (basadis) are generally available upto the adhishthana. Remains of the wall, in one of the basadis, reveals series of pilasters and stucco work. There are two Jaina viharas built in brick which are first of their kind in the region. The extant plan of the viharas consist of a front porch with a sopana entrance, flanked by chauri-bearers at the doorway. Several loose sculptures of Jaina affiliation are noticed here.

Mallikarjuna Temple This temple was built in 1234 CE by HariharaDanayaka, an officer under the Hoysala king Narasimha II. The temple, built on a raised jagati, is of the trikutachala type consisting of three garbhagrihas on the west, north and south, a sukanasi, a navaranga, a small porch and a nandi mandapa. The temple is square in plan and has two flights of steps leading to the jagati. It is interesting to note that the nandi mandapa is fused with the mukhamandapa with the help of perforated screens. The adhishthana is treated with friezes of elephants, horse riders, lions, makaras and hamsas. The frieze narratives of the epics are worthy of note. The narrations of the Bhagavata have the story of Prahlada and Krishna's childhood. The temple is known for its beautiful wall sculptures which include sixteen-handed Siva dancing on Apasmara, Durga with twenty-two hands, dancing Sarasvati, Ravana lifting Kailasa and Gajasuramardana etc. In all there are 103 intricately carved wall images. The superstructure above the western sanctum rising in 3 tiers is treated with stylisedsala, kuta and panjara motifs, with creeper, kirtimukha, yaksha, yakshi decorations. The sala motifs at the cardinals have elaborately sculptured deities like Nataraja, Siva, Parvati, etc. The mahanasa of the sukanasa projection has a fine sculptural representation of Tandavesvara under kirtimukhatorana. The majestic royal crest occupies the gable roof of the sukanasa. The prastara of the Basral temple is one of the best preserved of all Hoysala temples treated with sculptures of Ganesa, Sarasvati, Dancing Siva, Ashtabhuja Vishnu. Lakshmi, Yoganarayana etc.

Panchalingesvara Temple. Govindanahalli formed part of Gangavadi under the Gangas of Talkad. Later it came under the Chola rule. The Hoysalas annexed the Chola territory and ruled most parts of southern Karnataka in between 12th- “ 13th century CE. The Panchalingesvara temple is a good specimen of the Hoysala style. The temple has five garbhagrihas in north-south orientation and faces east. It is the extant specimen of Hoysala temple having quintuple plan. They have a separate sukanasi and navarangas in the same orientation. All are connected to a long pillared hall at the eastern side of the structure. There are two entrance doorways opposite the second and third garbhagriha respectively with a porch for each. The wall is modestly decorated with pilaster turrets and sculptural representations of the Bhagavata and epics. In the region of the navaranga the bhitti has a miniature shrine built into the southern wall. The pyramidal structure is in 3 tiers with ribbed conical two-tiered stupi culminating in a finial. The antarala has a prominently projected sukanasa. Except for the karnakutas; the hara of each tala including prasthara stands unfinished. The navaranga has seventeen niches, some of them having beautiful sculptures of the Hoysala art. The famous Hoysala sculptor Mallitamma is said to have carved two dvarapala figures. On stylistic grounds the temple could be dated around 1237-1238 CE.

Lakshminarayana Temple Hosaholalu village was part of the Ganga and the Chola dominions up to 11th century CE. The Hoysalas built an agrahara and enclosed it within a fort. The Lakshminarayana temple is a fine specimen of ornate vesara variety of Hoysalas temples assignable to 13th century CE. This trikutachala temple is stellate on plan. Only the main shrine facing east has a sukanasi, a navaranga and a superstructure. The pillars of the navaranga are lathe-turned and well polished. Dancing female sculptures in different mudras adorn the capitals of these pillars. On the exterior the temple stands on a high raised platform with conventional mouldings, the stellate corners of which are provided with sculptures of elephant denoting ashtadikgajas. The images carved on the walls are about two and a half feet high, fine specimens of Hoysala workmanship. These images revolving around the chaturvimsati aspect of Vishnu and other deities are interrupted by double-storeyed chariot-like shrines at west, north, and south of the stellate garbhagriha. The sculptures of Panduranga, Govardhandhari, Sarasvati Madhava, Dhanvantari, Dakshinamurti and Mohini are noteworthy amongst the wall sculptures. The friezes and scroll work and the railing panels on the adhishthana are of much interest. The superstructure over the western shrine of four talas have intricately sculptured hara units of which prominent ratha projections have sculptural depictions of various deities. The stupi in the form of inverted stupi has a finial atop. The sides and mahanasa of the sukanasa are also well carved. A closed mandapa built of granite blocks towards east obviously a later addition of 17th century CE, disturbs the original layout plan of the temple built of chlorite schist.

Panchakuta Basadi The PanchakutaBasadi at Kambadahalli assignable to 900-1000 CE is the most finite example of the Southern dvitala vimana type falling under the three classes, nagara, dravida, and vesara over a samachaturasra body, dedicated to Jaina faith. It is constructed in two phases. The first phase consists of three shrines of equal size, the central one placed on the line faces north and has a square griva-sikhara of the Brahmachhanda type. Of the other two shrines the one facing west has a Rudrachhandagriva-sikhara and the one facing east has Vishnuchhandagriva-sikhara. The shrines have separate open ardhamandapas joined to acommonmahamandapa. The four central pillars of the mahamandapa are ornate and support a vitana ceiling. The balipitha in front of the shrinesis sculptured with asthadikpalakas along with their consorts on respective vahanas. The second phase has two lateral units, are complete on plan with a samachaturasa shrine, a vestibule with a closed mandapa in front. These two shrines face each other and are joined by a pillared porch. The adhishthana common to all above units is of simple prati-bandha class decorated with upana, jagati, kantha, kampa, and a prominent pattikastambhas of Brahma-kantha type with Padma-bandha and mala-sthana. The main entrance to the complex is provided from the north by a gopuradvara. All the shrines housed beautiful sculpture of a tirthankara with elaborately carved pithas. The temple has beautiful sculptures of Jaina Yakshas and Yakshis of the Ganga and Hoysala periods. These shrines particularly dimensional types of sikharas impart an arithmetic beauty and speak of the mastery of the compositional aspects of the temple builders. This temple is considered as"a landmark in South Indian Architecture".

Lakshminarasimhaswamy Temple Marehalli was an old agrahara from the time of Gangas. It was known as RajasrayaVinnagaram during the time of Rajaraja I (985-1012 CE) of the Chola dynasty. With the victory of the Hoysalas over Cholas at Talakkad, the agrahara passed to them and was subsequently ruled successively by Vijayanagara, Wodeyars of Mysore, Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. The temple built during the reign of Rajaraja Chola has on plan a garbhagriha, an antarala and a mukhamandapa in east-west orientation enclosed by a pillared prakara. In the sanctum, is enshrined an image of Lakshminarasimha. The temple subsequently was renovated and restored during the Hoysala and Vijayanagara periods. The temple has an imposing mahadvara of the typical Vijayanagara style. Another small Siva shrine is present to the north-east of the complex. Delineating Chola features, it contains an inscription on the foundation. It comprises of a garbhagriha preceded by an antarala and navaranga. Above the sanctum is a squattish Dravida vimana of brick and lime. The entrance leading from north and a pillared mandapa to the south-east are other edifices in this complex.

Cheluvanarayanaswamy Temple The Melkote village also known as Tirunarayanapura after the presiding deity Tirunarayana (Vishnu), is built on a low rocky hill anciently known as Yadavagiri or Yadugiri. The Cheluvanarayanaswamy temple has on plan a main central unit consisting of a garbhagriha and an ardhamandapa amidst a narrow pillared corridor that runs on all three sides and is preceded by a mahamandapa and a small mukhamandapa all in east-west orientation. There is a large courtyard open on the south, west and north and covered on the eastern side, surrounded by a huge prakara wall with a broad pillared cloister on its inner side and a narrow pillared corridor on its outer side. The garbhagriha and the ardhamandapa form the original core of the temple. The main deity inside the garbhagriha is the beautiful image of Cheluvanarayana (Vishnu) of Hoysala workmanship. In external elevation the garbhagriha and ardhamandapa have an adhishthana supporting walls. The adhisthana has the mouldingsupana, jagati, tripattakumuda, kantha and prati. The walls are decorated with pilasters and niches. The parapet has devakoshthas having beautiful stucco figures and images of Vishnu. The superstructure rises in three diminishing tiers. Each tier is relieved with bhadrakoshthas and pilasters. The rangamandapa has pillars decorated with panels depicting scenes from the epic Mahabharata. Within the enclosure are shrines for Devi and Alwars. The entrance doorway of the temple has a tall gopura in brick and stucco. At the main entrance are Vaishnava dvarapalas and elephants.

Saumyakeshava Temple Nagamangala, part of ancient Gangavadi, is a prolific Vaishnava centre and it received patronage from the time of HoysalaVishnuvardhana (1116 CE). His wife Bommaladevi made grants to the famous Shankaranarayana temple and renovated it. During the time of the Hoysala king, Vira Ballala II, Nagamangala was developed into an agrahara called 'Vira Ballala Chaturvedi Bhattaratnakara'. The Saumyakeshava temple is a large structure in soapstone and granite, built in 12th century CE and renovated by successful rulers reveal glimpses of Hoysala, Vijayanagara and post-Vijayanagara features. Its imposing mahadvara, prakara and patalankana seems to have been added in the Vijayanagara period. On plan, this trikutachala temple has a garbhagiha, an antarala, a navaranga, a large pillared mahamandapa. The navaranga has two shrines at north and south. At east, the mahamandapa opens into a jagati. The temple raised on a jagati with the conventional mouldings is stellate in the region of sanctum and indented in the region of mahamandapa. The conventional mouldings of adhisthana, single pilastered turreted wall, an austere sikhara without the typical Hoysala carving retains its majesty. In the sanctum the image of god Kesava, six feet high, stands on a Garuda pedestal. It is well-sculptured and serene in expression, so it is called Saumyakeshava. The pillars and ceilings of the navaranga are treated with varied and attractive designs. The tall seven storeyed lime and brick gopura over the eastern entrance, the stucco figures of gods and goddesses and other sub-shrines add grace to the entire temple complex.

Lakshminarayana  Temple Sindhaghatta was ruled by the Gangas (fourth-tenth centuries CE) and succeeded respectively by the Cholas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara and the Mysore Wodeyars. The temple of Lakshminarayana built upon a raised jagati is assignable to 12th century CE non ornate variety of Hoysala style of architecture. The extent portion on plan has a square garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a pillared navaranga and a pillared mandapa. The adhisthanamouldings are derived into friezes uncarved in the region of garbhagriha. The bhitti is very austere. The kapota is marked with offsets over which less conspicuous eave with kudu arches support an ekatala stepped pyramidal Dravidasikhara in the region of sanctum. The tala is composed of karnakutas at corners and a large sala intervened by panjara motif. A prominent griva supports a kuta stupi with finial atop. The kuta stupi sculptured with klrtimukha decoration at corners. Entrance steps to jagati are flanked by minlature shrines, the superstructures of which are lost. The pillared porch in front is provided with kakshasana on either side of the steps. The Lakshminarayana image in the garbhagriha is a fine piece of Hoysala workmanship. The complex is enclosed by a dilapidated prakara with an entrance mandapa on the east.

Ancient Palace Site and Remains After the collapse of Vijayanagara empire in 1565 CE, the Mysore Wodeyar till then governing Mysore kingdom declared independence under Raja Wodeyar in 1610 CE. He made Srirangapatna his seat of government which ultimately became the capital of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan till it was captured by the British in 1799 CE. The ancient palace remains are located at a little distance to the east of the Ranganathaswami temple. The site consists of a raised mound with remains of a lime-pilastered brick structure partly exposed plinth. Buchanan who visited Srirangapatna in 1800 CE has left a glowing account of this structure. In its heyday, the structure contained huge halls and rooms including apartments part of this structure is exposed recently, revealing a pillared room, a hall and portion of a flight of steps from the west. A considerable portion to the east is still buried

Colonel Bailey’s Dungeon On the northern side of the Srirangapatna temple, in the fort wall, there is an oblong bastion in which heavy battery was kept and it is called Sultan Bateri. Below the bastion, there is a dungeon which is not visible to any passer-by. It measures about 30.50 meters in length and 12.20 meters in width. It is designed with vaulted roof and constructed using brick and lime mortar. In the Eastern, Northern and Western walls there are fixed stone slabs with holes, to which the chains of the prisoners were tied. In it many English war prisoners like Col. Bailey, Captain Baird, Col. Braithwaite, Sampson, Frazer, Lindsay and Captain Rulay were imprisoned by Tipu Sultan. Since Col. Bailey died on 13th November 1782 in the dungeon after a prolonged illness, it is named after him.

Another monument erected in memory of Col. William Bailey is located at Lalbagh, to the east of its entrance. This monument was erected in 1816 CE, by his nephew Lieut. Col. John Bailey, Resident at the court of Lucknow. This structure has an inscription stating the purpose of the erection and the date.

Daria Daulat Bagh The summer palace of Tipu Sultan built in 1784 CE, is located outside the fort, on the bank of river Kaveri. It is constructed in the center of a well designed garden in the Indo-Islamic style. Daria Daulat Bagh means "Garden of the Sea of Wealth? and as the name suggests, the Palace might have been constructed in commemoration of Tipu Sultan’s victory extending to the seas.

The Palace built mostly of teak wood is rectangular in plan and stands on a raised platform, about 5’high. Open corridors with wooden pillarsat its edges run along the four sides of the Palace. The inner building is squarein plan, while the eastern and western wings have walls, the other two wings have recessed bays with pillars supporting the roof of the upper storey. There are four staircases for the upper storeythat are hidden in the dark rooms, concealed in the walls.The first floor has a small hall with projecting balconies in the centre. It is said that Tipu used to receive his ambassadors and guests in this hall. On the east and west sides there are three rooms each that are probably used for living purposes.The most striking feature of the building is that the entire space on the walls and the roof, pillars, canopies and arches is painted artistically. The outer walls depict battle scenes and portraits and the interior walls are decorated with scrolls of thin foliage and floral pattern.

The paintings on the western wall depict four large battle scenes and emphasize the glorious victory of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan over the English contingent led by Colonel Bailey in 1780in Second Anglo-Mysore war. The first shows Hyder Ali on an elephant in the midst of his troops marching forth for the First battle of Palilür (Pollilur), as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore war. His army is composed of swordsmen on horseback and footmen with spears. The former wear cloth helmets, long coats, breeches and slippers, while the latter wear jackets, breeches, sandals and turbans, held in position with handkerchiefs. The second panel shows Tipu riding on horseback and similarly proceeding to the battle. His favourite tiger stripes are conspicuous on his banners and elsewhere. His secretary Mir Sadak, is shown next to him. However, his face was disfigured later by Tipu’ssupporters as he was thought to be the traitor. Among Tipu's cavalry can be seen a company of French swordsmen led by an officer who is pointed out generally as Mons. Lally. The third panel shows the victory of Mysore at the battle of Palilür (Pollilur). Hyder and Tipuwas shown as guiding their troops from their elephants and the Mysore cavalry charges the British both in front and back. The French gunners and the commander of the Mysore forces play their part in the battle. The red coated English soldiers have formed a phalanx to protect their ammunition and their leader Col. Bailey, who is carried in a palanquin sits with his finger on his lips in dismay. A ball from the French gunners explodes the ammunition and mad certain the defeat of the British. The brilliant victory of Tipu in this war resulted in the capture of Col. Bailey and the flight of Sir Hector Munro to Madras. The fourth panel shows the Nizam's army with his horsemen and elephants arriving near the battlefield too late to be of any help to the British, their allies. Below the picture of the Nizam riding on horse back are painted the figures of a cow and a boar. Tradition states that Tipu alleged that the Nizam looked innocent like a cow and was really as wicked and contemptible as a boar (suvvar). It is explained that he came like a cow and fled like a boar.

The east walls of the building are covered with a large number of panels most of which contain the scenes of the durbars of various rulers contemporary with Tipu and otherwise. About a hundred of these personages are painted, among whom may be identified the Hindu Rani of Chittore, Mohammed Ali Walajah and his queen, the Raja of Tanjore, the Raja of Benares, Balaji Rao II Peshwa, KrishnarajaWodeyar III, Magadi Kempegauda andMadikere Nayak of Chitradurga.

This Palace was used as a residence by Col. Wellesley during his command of the Mysore forces. It is being taken very good care of by the Gardens Department of the Mysore Government and in the Durbar hall is a framed order of Lord Dalhousie for its preservation containing extracts from a letter of Lord Wellesley who later on became the Duke of Wellington.

Gumbaz containing Tomb of Tipu Sultan Tipu Sultan as a tribute to his illustrious father Haider Ali, built a tomb and mosque (1782-84 CE) at the eastern extreme of his capital Srirangapatna amidst a well-laid garden. His mother Fakr-Un-Nisa is also interred adjacent to his father's cenotaph. Although he did not build the tomb with the intention of his own-burial, after his death in 1799 CE, the kith and kin of Tipu Sultan chose to bury him along with his parents.

This majestic looking tomb is built at the center of a large garden studded with choicest floral and fruit bearing trees. It is entered through an imposing NaqqarKhana with arched entrance and a room at the top containing wooden windows. The tomb proper is accommodated on a square platform which in turn is surrounded by Khan-Khana and corridor having series of pointed arches. of brick and lime

The low platform is externally veneered and the top has a lime concrete pavement. Leaving considerable space all around, the main structure comprises a square chamber surrounded by corridor of polished black stone pillars. The exterior wall of the chamber is made up of granite veneer and has an intricately carved jali depicting geometrical work to allow adequate light to the chamber. The interior of the chamber up to the hollow circular ceiling is beautifully decorated with painting depicting tiger stripes, a favorite theme employed during the time of Tipu Sultan.Some floral designs also adorn the interior wall of the chamber. The three entrances of the chamber are provided with ivory inlaid teak wood doors.The tomb is crowned with a large dome resting on a circular base which rises to a considerable height and it carries a series of finials. Tipu Sultan’s cenotaph is provided with a cover resembling tiger stripes. Near the eastern entrance is a tablet with Persian legend mentioning the martyrdom of Tipu Sultan in 1213 Hizri (1799 CE). The corridor has over it, a low decorated parapet intervened by squattish guldastascarrying finials or buds. The cut plaster work on the exterior of parapet is exquisitely beautiful.

Further east of the tomb is a mosque of moderate size known as Masjid-E-Aksa. The Mosque on plan has a rectangular hall and a pillared corridor. The rectangular hall has massive pillars which carries the vaulted roof. The mihrabat at the western wall of the hall is of considerable size and the frame is decorated.Two prominent double-storeyed minarets at the corner add elevation to the mosque.

The huge square platform also contains numerous cenotaphs indicating the burials of kith and kins of Hyder and Tipu's family.

Jumma Masjid (Masjid-E-Ala) Jami Masjid is situated to the north-west of the Bengaluru Gate of the fort. The mosque is entered through a series of flights of steps and on plan consists of an east facing prayer hall preceded by a four pillared verandah and a platform. The prayer hall, rectangular on plan is divided into five bays by a series of piers carrying the dome roof. The mihrab on the western wall is of medium size and is surmounted by a ribbed dome like protrusion carrying floral designs and the finial.The walls betray paintings depicting tiger stripes in patches.

On the walls of the hall are found stone inscriptions with quotations from the Quran etc. One of these, the Arabic inscription mentions the ninety nine titles of prophet Mohammad. Another Persian inscription gives the name of Tipu Sultan as builder of this mosque called Masjid-e-Ala and also the date of construction as A.H. 1215 (1782 CE).

The basement portion of the mosque is used for running a Madrasa and the cloister around accommodates a seriesof rooms used by Waqf committee for various purposes. Some of the pillars with decorations also indicate blending of Indo-Islamic features.

The two lofty double-storeyedoctagonal minarets add to the elevation of the mosque. Their shafts are ornamented with cornices, floral bands and pigeon hole like decoration and are topped by highly decorated dome with finials and metallic kalasa of the Hindu type. There are two narrow terraces with ornamental parapets near to the top. The top of the minarets isreached by a winding flight of more than 200 steps.

Being situated at a higher plane, the mosque forms a landmark of Srirangapatna cross the river Kaveri for people coming from Bengaluru.

Obelisk Monuments and Fort walls near the Breach The walls and the breach were left in their original battered condition from 1799 till 1905 even after the wars. At the suggestion of Lord Curzon the Government of Mysore put up a parapet across the breach and set up an obelisk in memory of the British assaultand of the British officers who died at the siege of Srirangapatna on 4th May 1799. The structure is one of polished stone and is in the form of a square planned pier surmounted by a tapering obelisk. On the top of the obelisk and around the square pier are placed cannon balls. In one of the faces of the pier it is engraved as “This Monument was erected by the Government of Mysore in 1907 in order to commemorate the siege of Seringapatnam by the British forces under Lieutenant General G Harris and its final capture by assault on the 4th May 1799 as also the names of those gallant officers who fell during the operations?.The other faceshave the name of officers who fell and the units which fought at the siege of Seringapatnam in 1799.

Spot where Tipu’s Body was found It was formerly thought that Tipu was caught inside wate gate between two sections of the British during the Fourth Mysore Battle and was killed. Water gate is a low arched gate way made by piercing the fort wall to the north east of the Gangadhara temple, for the easy approach to the river by the inhabitants of the northern part of the Srirangapatna town.A tablet was also put up by the Mysore Government at this spot. But he really died about a hundred yards further east.

During the Fourth Mysore battle, the British troops entered the strong fort of Srirangapatna by breaching the fort wall. About fifty yards to the east of the water gate, inside the second fort line, is said to have stood another gateway which led through the inner earthen wall which Tipu had got constructed.

On the 4th of May 1799, Tipu being pushed back moved along the second wall and descending from it near the water gate tried to enter the town through this second gate.It is said that he found the gate closed and the Killedar unwilling to open it. Meanwhile the British troops who had crossed over to the third wall came along, descended into the town and entered this gate from the inside. Tipu was thus caught in the gateway between the two advancing sections of the British forces and fell down wounded. The storming troops not knowing that Tipu was here entered the gate and rushed towards the palace.

When the British officers tried to trace the body of Tipu, his dying private secretary pointed to the place where his master lay under a heap of the dead. Tipu's body was easily identified since his face had not been disfigured and he had also worn a well-known talisman. The body was yet warm and was removed to the palace for the night. An English soldier later on narrated how he found here an unconscious Mysorean Sardar wearing golden belt. Tipu tried to ward off with his sword, one of the British soldiers who tried to snatch his golden belt. Fearing for his friend's life, another British soldier shot Tipu in the temple and it has been thought that Tipu met with his death thus.

Sri Kanthirava Statue in Narasimha Temple The historical and political importance of Srirangapatna increased from 1610 CE onwards when Raja Wodeyar made it seat of his government. During the time of KanthiravaNarasaraja Wodeyar (1638-1659 CE) it was besieged by Ranadulla Khan, commander of the Mughal army. Later on, between 1761-1799 CE, under Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan, it became the envy of Britishers. The statue of KanthiravaNarasaraja Wodeyar of the Wodeyar dynasty is one of the great rulers of Mysore, is kept in a sub-shrine to the left of the Narasimhaswamy temple. This statue of 17th century is 1.1 m high and stands on a pedestal. An inscription on the pedestal in Kannada script mentions that it is the statue of KanthiravaNarasaraja Wodeyar. The statue, depicted in anjali pose, is richly ornamented and carved with a long robe, a sword, shield and a dagger. He was responsible for the construction of Narasimhaswamy temple in the first half of the 17th century CE. The main deity and the patron king were reinstalled in their original place in 1826 CE by Krishnaraja Wodeyar.

Sri Ranganathaswami Temple An inscription reveals that the temple of Sri Ranganatha was built by a Ganga chieftain by name Tirumalaiah in 984 CE. An inscription of HoysalaBallala II, dated 1210 CE, establishes the Hoysala participation in the activities of the Ranganatha Temple. Later the village of Srirangapatna is said to have been granted as an agrahara by the Hoysala king Vishnuvardhana (1108-1152 CE) to Ramanuja, a Vaishnava saint. The Sri Ranaganatha temple axially consists of a garbhagriha, sukanasi, navaranga and mahamanda enclosed by an outer prakara. The temple faces east and is entered through a gateway carrying a huge lime and brick gopura of Vijayanagara period. The mukhamandapa has a hara consisting of kudus and salasikharas having niches in which different incarnations of Vishnu in stucco are seen. The mahamandapa has pillars of different mouldings. In the rear are two rows of pillars with carvings of 24 forms of Vishnu with their names inscribed. The navaranga has two massive dvarapalas. The sukanasi contains a ceiling with a carved lotus and a pendant. The main deity in the garbhagriha is the colossal image of Vishnu in form of Ranganatha reclining on the coils of Adisesha whose widespread seven hoods form a canopy. He is flanked by Sridevi, Bhudevi and Nabi Brahma at the centre. At his foot is the seated image of goddess Lakshmi identified as Kaveri. There are many sub-shrines within the complex dedicate Narasimha, Gopalakrishna, Srinivasa, Hanuman, Garuda, Ranganayaki, Sudersana Chakra and Alwars.

Thomas Inman’s Dungeon In the North-East corner of the fort in the central fort wall, there is a structure with battery guard on its top. The structure was discovered by Mr. Thomas Inman, an engineer in 1895, which was named after him. It is a low arch structure constructed with brick and lime mortar, which is 13.75 meters in length and 9.75 meters in width. It resembles the Bailey’s Dungeon. It is said that the prisoners were kept under guard here even after the fall of Tipu. The Maratha chief DhondiaVagh was one of the important persons imprisoned here. This is situated very close to the fort that was destroyed in the war of 1799 which is called BiddaKote. The visitor can reach this point passing through this monument area which links to the ancient bridge which connects the island with the mainland.

Nambi Narayana Temple Tonnur located on the southern slopes of a small hillock locally called Yadugiri was a provincial capital of the Hoysalas. According to traditions, the Vaishnava saint Sri Ramanuja, stayed here for several years. The Nambinarayana temple is assignable to 12th century CE of the Hoysala period. The temple has a garbhagriha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a mukhamandapa. The temple has an austere elevation of an adhistana of conventional mouldings of pada, adhopadma, a narrow kantha, a knife edged tripattakumuda, a short kantha succeeded by an adho-padma with lenticular decorations. The wall is austere, treated with single pilasters. In the region of garbhagriha at the cardinal directions are double pilaster turreted niches of devakoshthas. The antarala region is marked by a large multi-faceted pilaster. The superstructure is a dvitalaDravida vimana with kutas, sala and panjara in the hara. The short griva is surmounted by a stupi and finial. The prastara is conspicuous by its absence. In the sanctum, the image of Narayana, 1.82 m high standing on a Garuda pedestal under a padma ceiling is a fine specimen of Hoysala workmanship. The navaranga has well polished soapstone pillars with exquisite floral design.

Jaina Temple Bandalike or Bandanike of the inscriptions, was an important town of Nagarakhanda-70 of the Kadamba kings. It was a well knowncentre of Kalamukha sect. The importance of the place is well attested by the lithic records of the Rashtrakutas (circa seventh-eighth century CE), later Chalukyas (circa eleventh-twelth century CE), Kalachuris, Hoysalas (circa twelth century CE), Seunas (circa thirteenth century CE) and Vijayanagara (circa fifteenth – sixteenthcentury CE). It was a prosperous centre in the eleventh and twelth centuries during the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. The ShantinathaBasadi, datable to circa 10th -12th century CE, has a garbhagriha, an antarala, a four pillared mahamandapa and a thirty two-pillared mukhamandapa all in north-south orientation. The mahamandapa in its southern wall has the devakoshthas on either side of the sukanasi doorway which is also provided with perforated jalis, Datable to the times of Rashtrakuta Krishna (Kannaradeva) the temple received endowments by one Jakkiyabbe who was ruling Bandalike in 912 CE. The epigraphs dated to 1200 and 1203 CE record that a merchant named BoppaSetti rebuilt the basadi. The sanctum is bereft of Jaina images. However, a few mutilated Jaina sculptures are found inside. In elevation, the temple has an austere adhishthana with an upana,pada, adhokumuda, moulding with dentil decorations.In the region of the pillared mandapa the jagati is provided with kakshasana, its exterior treated with lozenge floral decoration held by creeper bands. In the region of sanctum, the bhitti is offsetted into ratha and pratiratha projections.

Someshvara Temple Bandalike or Bandanike of the inscriptions, was an important town of Nagarakhanda-70 of the Kadamba kings. It was a well knowncentre of Kalamukha sect. The importance of the place is well attested by the lithic records of the Rashtrakutas (circa seventh-eighth century CE), later Chalukyas (circa eleventh-twelth century CE), Kalachuris, Hoysalas (circa twelth century CE), Seunas (circa thirteenth century CE) andVijayanagara (circa fifteenth-sixteenth century CE). It was a prosperous centre in the eleventh and twelth centuries during the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. This temple is also known as AnekalSomayya and Boppesvara temple named after one BoppaSetti who constructed it in 1274 CE. The temple is austere with a garbhagriha, a vestibule, a pillared mandapa with an insignificant porch, all arranged in east-west orientation. The entrance doorway to the temple is ornate with as many as four sakhas which at the base sculptural depictions of dvarapalas and female figures. The dvarasakhas are of floral and stambha variety. The lalatabimba of the lintel has Gajalakshmi. On either side of the door are highly ornate, sculptured, screens which have perforations alternating with narrative friezes depicting select episodes from epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. The sanctum is bereft of any images and the high plinth of conventional mouldings like upana, high pada, an adho-kumuda, knife edged tripattakumuda and an urdhvakumudamoulding accommodate an austere bhitti or wall with a plain madyabhanda Inside mahamandapa are six niches, two flanking the antarala and three each in the northern and southern walls, the central one being larger of the two at the sides.

Trimurthinarayana Temple Bandalike or Bandanike of the inscriptions, was an important town of Nagarakhanda-70 of the Kadamba kings. It was a well knowncentre of Kalamukha sect. The importance of the place is well attested by the lithic records of the Rashtrakutas (circa seventh-eighth century CE), later Chalukyas (circa eleventh-twelth century CE), Kalachuris, Hoysalas (circa twelth century CE), Seunas (circa thirteenth century CE) andVijayanagara (circa fifteenth-sixteenth century CE). It was a prosperous centre in the eleventh and twelth centuries during the period of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. Trimurtinarayana temple dated to 1160 CE is the largest temple at Bandalike. This is a trikutachala (triple-shrined) temple of the Chalukyan period. The superstructure on the northern and southern cells are intact whereas that on the western one has collapsed, Known for its elegance and symmetry, this temple in east-west orientation has Siva-linga in the western and southern cells while the northern cell has a figure of Vishnu. All the three cells have vestibules with ornamental doorways flanked by niches. The western cell has well sculptured simhalalata at its sukanasi. The elevation of the temple is austere. The wall is relieved by niches surmounted by turrets and slender pilasters. The superstructures over the garbhagrihas have the typical tritalaarpita carrying a square sikhara devoid of finials and a prominent sukhanasa projection.

Devaganga Pond Basavanabyne is located 4 km south of Nagar (Bidanur) and was a suburb of the Keladi kingdom whose capital was shifted from Ikkeri to Nagar around 1640 CE. The Devaganga ponds were the sporting ground of the Keladi royal family. A small natural stream flows into the horse-shoe shaped valley. Ponds and well have been constructed in a large courtyard measuring 86.93 x 29.89 m and is approached by a flight of steps from the east and west. Towards the northern end is the largest of the ponds which measures 25.32 x 17.69 m. A stone drain leads water from this pond to a second pond with a square bottom. Between the first and second ponds are stone pillars. There are totally seven ponds of which one has stellate and another lotus shaped bottom. Towards the southern end is the bathing place paved with stone. The flight of steps on the western side of the courtyard leads to a small shrine with linga near which is an oblong basement with evidence of some rooms.

Fortress and Renuka Temple Chandragutti lies 16 km northwest of Soraba town. Anciently known as Chandraguptapura, it was a stronghold of the Kadambas of Banavasi (3rd- 6th centuries CE) In an inscription dated 1396 CE of the reign of Vijayanagara king Harihara II (1377-1404 CE), Bachanna, a local chieftain claims to have established himself and said to have ruled over Chandragutti. Later the area was under the Keladi Nayakas. The Renuka temple situated on the summit of an elevated spot is a large natural cave approached by a flight of steps enshrining a small masked Sivalinga. The place being associated with Saint Jamadagni, and his wife, Renuka, the colossal hip like boulders in the cave are identified as Renuka in hiding when Parasurama pursued her. The outer facade of the cave forms the vestibule which is in the Chalukyan style. A pillared sabhamandapa was added during Viiayanagara period, all in east west orientation. Almost at the foot of the Renukamba temple facing west is a temple of Bhairava with modem alterations like tiled roof etc.

Basadi and Inscriptions Humcha was under the stronghold of the Kadambas of Banavasi (3rd -6th centuries CE) and Chalukyas of Badami (5th- 8th centuries CE). Later Humcha, also called a Pattipomburchhapura in inscriptions became the capital of the Santaras. It later became the chief town in Santalige-1000 and was an important centre of Jainism. In about 1209 CE, the Santaras shifted their capital to Kalasa in Chikmagalur district. The temple known as PanchaBasadi is situated at the foot of the Billeshvara hill. It was described as Urvi-tilakam (glory of the world) and was built in the Chalukyan style by Chattadevi, wife of Kaduvetti, a Pallava chief. Facing east, it consists of five cells all in a row with a common navaranga, mahamandapa, an open mukhamandapa constructed in 1077 CE. There is a cloister (verandah) all round the temple. In front of the main structure and few feet away on either side of it are two small shrines dedicated to Parsvanatha (north) and Bahubali (south) and the whole is enclosed by a compound with a mahadvara. Between the mahadwara and the main building are a small mandapa and a manastambha, which is a magnificent monolithic pillar with elegant carvings. The pillars stand on a high platform rising in three tiers. The bottommost one has four elephants at the four corners and four more at the cardinal points. Lions in different postures are carved in between these elephants. There is a small pavilion surrounding the pillar with a seated figure facing each of the four directions. On the whole, the manastambha is very elegant and is proportionate from top to bottom. There are three images in the cells of the Basadi mainly, Chandranatha, Santinatha and Parsvanatha. The image of Parsvanatha is interesting wherein just at the periphery of snake coils the personified manovikaras attracting the tirthankaras are depicted. The navaranga consists of ten ankanas with three doors and the images of Jwalamalini Yakshas and Yakshinis are kept in it.

Aghoreshvara Temple Ikkeri is a hamlet in Aralikoppa was under the direct control of the Kadambas of Banavasi. Subsequently, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas of Kalyana, the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara kings held sway over this region. The Nayakas of Keladi were the feudatories under the Vijayanagara kings in the early days of its existence. Later it grew into a powerful, independent kingdom with their capital at Keladi. During the reign of Chaudappa Nayaka, (1499-1544 CE), the capital was shifted from Keladi to Ikkeri. The coins struck by the Keladi Nayakas here go by the name of 'Ikkeri pagodas' and 'fanams'. The Aghoresvara temple built in granite in north-south orientation during the time of Keladi rulers, is a classical example of the Nayaka style of architecture. It comprises of a garbhagriha, an open sukanasi (ardhamandapa) and a large mukhamandapa with a separate pavilion for nandi. Interiorly the floor in front of the shrine has effigies of three Keladi chiefs doing obeisance. The garbhagriha contains a gignatic pedestal sculptured with 32 seated female figures. The temple has a metal image of thirty-two handed Aghoresvara. In the sukanasi is a small translucent nandi carved out of white spar. Flanking the sukanasi doorway on either side are two niches, containing sculptures of Ganesa and Kartikeya to right and Mahishamardini and Bhalrava to left. The front mukhamandapa is supported by carved pillars and has a narrow high jagati at the sides of the three entrances. Exteriorly the sanctum has a huge sikhara with a sukanasa projection and is in the Dravidian order. The walls of the sanctum have double pilaster turrets. The outer walls of the mukhamandapa are pierced with three ornate doorways approached by balustraded steps. The northern main entrance is flanked by caparisoned elephants placed over high pedestal. The available space of the walls is provided with nearly twenty perforated windows with ornamental arches interspersed with figure sculptures. The nandi mandapa has a huge couchant bull with a yali-balustraded steps at south. The adhisthana of the pavilion with conventional mouldings has floral depictions at a fairly high kantha moulding. Towards the west is Parvati shrine built on similar lines to the main temple with lesser dimensions and fewer sculptures. On plan, it has a garbhagriha, a sukhanasi, a small navaranga without pillars and a mukhamandapa closed on three sides and open towards north. The temple of Aghoresvara, stylistically datable to 16th century CE is a fine amalgamation of Hindu and Indo-Sarcenic styles of architecture.

Fort Kavaledurga, also called Bhuvanagiri was a stronghold of the Nayakas of Keladi who were the feudatories under the Vijayanagara rulers and later became independent after the fall of the Vijayanagara kingdom. Venkatappa Nayaka (1582-1629 CE) fortified the place, built a palace, amahattinamatha, a Sringeri matha, a treasury, a granary, stables for elephants and horses and ponds and made it an agrahara. The fort at Kavaledurga has three walls, which are constructed of huge granite blocks following the natural contour of the hillock. Each fortification has a gateway flanked by guard’s rooms on either side. As each fortification is at a higher level than the other, they are reached by flight of steps. In between each fortification there are temples, a ruined palace site and basement of undefined structures. At the summit of the hill almost at the centre overlooking the western sea is asmall temple popularly known as Srikanteshvara or Srikantesvara temple. The Srikantesvara temple on plan has a garbhagriha, a nandimandapa and an entrance porch commanding a fine view of the setting sun beyond the western horizon. The palace site within the fort has ornate basement of a large terraced structure. There are remnants of a staircase leading to the upper storey of the structure.

Rameswara Keladi was directly under the rule of Kadambas of Banavasi and subsequently Chalukyas of Badami, the Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyana, the Hoysalas and the Vijayanagara rulers held sway over the area. Keladi was a small feudatory principality of the Vijayanagara in the initial days of its existence. After the dismemberment of the mighty Vijayanagara empire in 1565 CE, the Keladi principality grew into a powerful kingdom. It became the first capital of the illustrious Keladi Nayakas. The capital was subsequently shifted to Ikkeri under Chandrappa Nayaka (1499-1544 CE) and to Bidanur in 1639 CE under Virabhadra Nayaka (1629-1645 CE). The temple of Ramesvara is a medium sized structure built in mixed Hoysala and Dravida styles around 16th century CE. It is constructed of greenish grey schist stone in east-west orientation. It has a small garbhagriha with its own pradakshina, a small mahamandapa (navaranga) and a mukhamandapa. The mahamandapa has relief sculptures or devotees towards east and west ends. Similar in outlay the Virabhadra temple has a projected porch and both the Ramesvara and Virabhadra temples have a common mukhamandapa with jagati at the periphery. One of the ceilings of Virabhadra temple has the mythical twin-headed bird Gandabherunda. The triple shrines are enclosed by a tile-roofed cloister carried by wooden pillar.

Kaitabesvara The Kaitabhesvara temple at Kubattur is datable to 1100 CE and is one of the early Hoysala temples of the period of Vinayaditya. It is also known as Kotishvara in inscriptions. The sculptural depictions and the style of architecture closely resembles that of the Chalukyan temples, in its plan and form of pillars and sikhara. A rare inscription in this temple refers to major forms of medieval Indian temples. The temple in east-west orientation on plan has a garbhagriha, an antarala and open square navaranga or sabhamandapa with mukhamandapa on three sides with flight of steps. The garbhagriha is square and empty at present must have enshrined a shiva linga. The garbhagriha dvara has panchasakhas with scrolls, pilasters etc and the lalatabimba depicted with gajalakshmi and above this has seven sikhara turrets. The garbhagriha has three small niches on the south, west, north and contain linga on a pitha. The outer walls are in the shape of star type and contains three devakoshtas on the south, west and north sides. The sikhara of Dravidian style with four talas of turrets converging towards the sikhara and a projection on the east face towards the sukhanasi. The sculptures of Mahisamardini, Bhairava, Maheswaraetc are decorated with the sikharas. The exterior wall of the garbhagriha which is square in plan with indented corners has towered niches at north, west and south. The eaves are less conspicuous. The superstructure over the sanctum is of chatustalaarpita, crowned by a square sikhara and sukanasa projects towards east. The sculptures of Mahishamardini, Bhairava and Ganesa adorn the superstructure. The antarala is square and door way has panchasakhas with scrolls etc. The lalatabimba is depicted with Gajalakshmi and above this has five decorated sikhara turrets. By the side of the antarala door way is fitted with jalandharas with decorations. The ceiling is beautifully carved decorated with multipettalled lotus and above the antarala is shukhanasi. The sabhamandapa or navaranga is large, oblong and high with broad central aisles, open all sides except on the west towards antarala. The mandapa stands on twelve central round pillars set on an elevated floor which makes five big ankanas. Another set of twelve round pillars set on either side of the oblong mandapa makes side aisles. The ceiling of the mandapa is decorated with lotus flowers and different designs. There are three entrances on the east, south and north sides. The pillars of the mandapa are circular, lathe-turned and polished and those placed over jagati are fluted and shorter. The ceilings are ornate and the parapet over the heavy typical Hoysala eaves has sculptural representations of Ugra Narasimha, Varaha, Garuda, Kesava, etc. The mukhamandapa on three sides - east, south and north are square and stands on two pillars at the front with flight of steps. The mukhamandapas are provided with kakshasana on three sides. The ceiling of the mukhamandapaare decorated with lotus flowers. The kakshasana is also having floral decorations. There are in all five entrances to the mukhamandapa. Two lateral entrances are provided in addition to the conventional northern, southern and eastern entrances. The outer walls are decorated with pillars and pilasters topped by sikhara turrets. The outer walls of the garbhagriha has offsets and recesses and decorated with beautiful figures and deities. The garbhagriha walls have deep niches on west, north and south. The stone parapet which runs above the mandapa all round is decorated with a row of kirtimukhas bearing the figures of various gods and goddesses. In elevation the temple has the stylisedadhisthana of five moulings of kumuda followed by a bhitti with full length pilasters ad half length pilasters surmounted by miniature model of temple super structure, one differing from the other. In the region of mukhamandapa the adhisthana is treated with floral motifs, pilasters surmounted by curvilinear, stepped pyramidal shaped turrets with the kirtimukha scrolls.

Parshvanatha Basadi The Parshvanathabasadi was constructed in 1017 CE. It is constructed in laterite blocks and has a garbhagriha with a long pillared mandapa in the east. The garbhagriha has a seated image of Jina crowned by a seven-hooded snake, about 1.52 mt. high with a canopy, flanked by chauri-bearers all in one stone. The exterior walls are plain. There are a few Jaina inscriptions in the premises of the temple referring to the Sallekhana of some Jaina ascetics. A rare inscription in the temple refers to major forms of medieval Indian temples.

Rameshvara Temple The Ramesvara temple is located nearly 50 m north of ParasvanathaBasadi. The temple built in circa 900 CE, is a Rashtrakuta venture. It has a sandhara garbhagriha and a pillared mukhamandapa in front, all in east-west orientation. The ceilings to the east and west of the central ceiling have good sculptural depictions of padma. In the region of navaranga are placed a large Saptamatrika panel and a fine sculpture of Mahishamardini. On the exterior, the walls are plain. A rare inscription in the temple refers to major forms of medieval Indian temples.

Rameshvara Temple Kudli was inhabited right from the Paleolithic times to the recent times. The earliest written evidence available in the district in the form of a pillar inscription at Malavalli proves that the area was under active occupation under the Chutus, the Satavahanas, the Kadambas of Banavasi, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas of Kalyana. The Hoysalas became powerful in the 11th century and ruled from Shimoga. After the fall of Hoysala kingdom in the last quarter of 14th century CE, the area became part of the Vijayanagara empire. In around 16th century CE, the Nayakas of Keladi established themselves in the area as feudatories under the Vijayanagara empire. The Ramesvara temple is situated at the confluence of Bhadra (on the east ) and Tunga (on the west). This 12th century CE temple, is a non-ornate variety of Hoysala architecture with Vesara vimana. The temple in east-west orientation in its axial plan has a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and a closed sabhamandapa with a central raised podium accommodating the sculpture of a couchant well sculptured nandi. The sabhamandapa at north, south and east has four-pillared porches fused into it. The sanctum houses a Siva-linga. The pillars in the sabhamandapa are lathe-turned and polished. The jagati has five mouldings and the walls are devoid of decorations except for plain, slender pilasters at regular intervals. The sukhanasi projection of the super structure has the Hoysala emblem.

Temples and Inscriptions Kuppagadde is 15 kms north-east of Soraba and is the ancient Pushpavathi. The temple of Ramesvara dated to 1189 CE was built by Rama, a Brahmin of Mane family and was consecrated by the illustrious Kalamukha saint Vamashakti of the Kodiyamatha of Belligavi. The temple faces east and consists of a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and an open porch, to which a long hall of five ankanas (squares) with a central raised naive and side aisles supported by 24 pillars are added. This large front mandapa has entrances at north, south and east. The doorways of garbhagriha and sukanasihave perforated screens on either side. In the eastern end of the hall, facing Siva-linga is a well sculptured couchant bull. In addition, there is an exquisitely carved sculpture of 1.83 mts high image of Venugopala, Mahishamardini, Ganesha and Saptamatrikas. In elevation, the mandapa has a pada, and adhokumuda, a high kantha with a pattika. Over this rests the kakshasana treated with lozenge and pillastered turrets. The heavy eave and prastara are supported by circular pillars placed over the jagati. The regions of the mahamandapa and garbhagriha have an indented plan with ratha, anuratha and pratiratha projections. At adhishtana it has a high pada, an adhokumuda, a knife edged tripattakumudamoulding treated with dentil decorations. The bhitti proper resting immediately above this adhishtana has a pattika of lozenges decorations at the base. Further, the bhitti at garbhagriha is pierced with three devakoshtas at cardinal directions withvesaraturrets. The offsettedmalasthana is followed by a less conspicuous eave over which in the region of sanctum rises a saptatalakadamba nagara shikhara culminating in a kuta type of stupi with a large finial. At the corresponding ratha offset are placed intricately carved independent panjara motifs with the various aspects of Siva. The sukanasa in the region of mahanasa has a large ornate kirtimukhatorana.

Inscribed Pillar Malavalli was under the direct control of the Satavahanas right from 1st- 2nd century CE. This is evident from the inscription belonging to the King VinhukadaChutukulanandaSatakarni. Subsequently, from 4th century CE onwards it formed the territory of the Kadambas of Vaijayanti (Banavasi) founded by Mayurasarma. The hexagonal pillar setup in front of the Kallesvara temple has two separate inscriptions. The first inscription dated to 2nd century CE is assignable to the period of VinhukadaChutukulanandaSatakarni who was the king of Vijayanagara, is carved on the first three faces of the hexagonal pillar, breadth-wise. It contains a command to his officer MahavallabhaRajjuka informing him of the grant of the village Sahalatavi for the god of Malavalli. The gift was made on the first day of the second fortnight. The second inscription assignable to 3rd - 4th century CE is engraved on the remaining 3 faces of the above said pillar. It refers to the rule of the Kadamba king Sivaskanda Varma and the renewal of the above mentioned grant, which had become defunct, to Nagadatta, a Brahmana of Kaundinya gotra in the first regnal year of the king.

aina Basadi with Brahmadeva Pillar This Basadi dedicated to Ananthanatha, according to an inscription, is said to have been constructed by a merchant named BummanaSreshthi. It was rebuilt in stone by his grandson in 1608 CE. The basadi on plan has a garbhagriha with a narrow pradakshinapatha, a sukanasi, a navaranga and a mukhamandapa with an entrance porch to the east. The pillars of the mukhamandapa resemble the Vijayanagara pillar order. The adhistana in the region of garbhagriha and mahamandapa is austere comprising a pada, an adhokumuda, pattika and an urdhvakumudamoulding. At mukhamandapa the pattika is replaced by a kantha and the urdhvakumudamoulding is provided with dentil decoration at regular intervals. The flight of steps is flanked by yali balustrade. The bhitti is plain save slender pilasters at regular intervals. The eave, is plain and heavy, is surmounted by a plain prastara provided with dronas at regular intervals. The superstructure over the garbhagriha has five talas in receding order with a prominent griva and stupi. The mahanasa of sukanasa is bereft of any image. In front of the basadi there is a manastambha of good proportions. It stands on a stepped platform. The pillar is square at the base and the shaft is shaped to begin with an octagon later sixteen sided and finally circular at its apex.

Mallikarjuna and Rameshwara group of Temple Nadakalsi formed part of Banavasi-1200 province of the Kadambas and later came under the control of the Chalukyas of Kalyana. Subsequently, Nadakalasi became a flourishing town under the Hoysalas of Dorasamudra from circa 12th century CE. Mallikarjuna and Ramesvara temples were built around 1218 CE by BaleyannaVergade, King of Kondanad. The temples face north and are located side by side and represent the non-ornate variety of Hoysala temples. The Mallikarjuna temple is larger of the two, and houses a flat linga. To its right is Sadasiva temple locally known as Ramesvara temple. The Mallikarjuna temple on plan has a garbhagriha, sukanasi and a mukhamandapa. The mukhamandapa has entrances from north, east and west. The pillars in the mukhamandapa are well polished, lathe-turned and multi-fluted. The niches in the mukhamandapa accommodate beautiful sculptures of Saptamatrikas, Ganesha, Mahishamardini and Umamahesvara of Hoysalaworkmanship. The superstructure over the garbhagriha is of Kadamba Nagara type. The Ramesvara temple is almost oblong and has a narrow pradakshinapatha, without a sukanasi and is connected to a navaranga. This plan is rare in Hoysala temples since the pradakshinapatha is usually a component of southern or Dravidian style. The pillars of the navaranga are well polished and lathe-turned.

Palace Site outside the Fort Before attaining historical importance, this place was called Bidarahalli named after a small village. It shot into prominence during the reign of Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1592-1629 CE) of Ikkeri kingdom when he annexed this region during his campaign and regularised worship in the Sri Nilakanthesvara temple. However, it attained the status of a capital from the time of Virabhadra Nayaka (1629-1645 CE) who succeeded Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka. Due to the sudden attack of Islamic forces under Ranadulla Khan of Bijapur Sultanate, lkkeri was razed to the ground in 1560 CEinspite of Virabhadra Nayaka’s efforts to contain the onslaught. Since Ikkeri was becoming a centre of political and economic crisis Virabhadra Nayaka abandoned it and made Bidnur its capital in 1639 CE. He built a formidable fort with beautiful palaces at strategically important point in Bidnur. Virabhadra Nayaka was succeeded by ShivappaNayaka (1645-1665 CE) who ascended the throne at Bidnur (or Venupura). During Sivappa Nayaka's time this place was buzzing with vibrant political activity. He improved and enlarged the Fort. His successor ruled from here till it was annexed in 1763 CE by Haider Ali who renamed Bidnur as Haider Nagar. Now it is called as Nagar only. Haideri gold pagodas were struck here in the mint established by Haider Ali. Tipu Sultan rebuilt the palace and its surroundings. However, it never regained its lost glory and slowly it was abandoned to its present condition. The structure identified as palace is rectangular on plan measuring 34.75 x 20.75 mts. built on a high platform. Flanking the three rectangular rooms in the centre are two huge courtyards to north and south respectively. The central room measures 7x5.12 m. While the side rooms measure 4.5x5.12 mts. with doorways leading to the courtyard. A series of post-holes indicate that the huge pillars probably of wood might have carried the heavy roof of the palace. Comer rooms also accommodated steps of staircase leading either to the first floor or the balcony. The extant walls of laterite show evidence of thick coat of lime plaster and also have niches.

Shivappa Nayak’s Fort Before attaining historical importance, this place was called Bidarahalli named after a small village. It shot into prominence during the reign of Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka (1592-1629 CE) of Ikkeri kingdom when he annexed this region during his campaign and regularised worship in the Sri Nilakanthesvara temple. However, it attained the status of a capital from the time of Virabhadra Nayaka (1629-1645 CE) who succeeded Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka. Due to the sudden attack of Islamic forces under Ranadulla Khan of Bijapur Sultanate, lkkeri was razed to the ground in 1560 CE inspite of Virabhadra Nayakas efforts to contain the onslaught. Since Ikkeri was becoming a centre of political and economic crisis Virabhadra Nayaka abandoned it and made Bidnur its capital in 1639 CE. He built a formidable fort with beautiful palaces at strategically important point in Bidnur. Virabhadra Nayaka was succeeded by Shivappa Nayaka (1645-1665 CE) who ascended the throne at Bidnur (or Venupura). During Sivappa Nayaka's time this place was buzzing with vibrant political activity. He improved and enlarged the Fort. His successor ruled from here till it was annexed in 1763 CE by Haider Ali who renamed Bidnur as Haider Nagar. Now it is called as Nagar only. Haideri gold pagodas were struck here in the mint established by Haider Ali. During the Mysore War it suffered badly due to burning. Tipu Sultan rebuilt the palace and its surroundings. However, it never regained its lost glory and slowly it was abandoned to its present condition. The fort built of stone masonry is almost ovoid on plan having a series of bastions at regular intervals. Above the masonry wall raises the thick parapet with a series of musket holes. A number of guard rooms are provided in the interior wall. Abutting the exterior fort wall is a deep moat with retaining walls running around. The fort is entered through a steep ramp leading to the main entrance from the north. The gateway is flanked by two bastions and has a sally port on the left side. The ramp through this gateway leads to the tank to the west and remnants of the palace to the south-east. The tank well has many compartments and entrances with a flight of steps. Further to the south at a higher level is the famous palace building rectangular on plan, accommodating series of rooms and halls. The large open area to the west seems to have been used to accommodate audience. At the south west comer is a deep octagonal well. A steep ramp provided at the extreme end of the open courtyard abutting the outer fort wall leads to the observatory tower. The depression further south of the octagonal well seems to be a storage tank to the south east of which is a huge mound probably enclosing a huge rubble structure. Beyond this mound and the observatory is another structure, now in ruins having a vast opening towards south. Considering its isolated and exclusive location, this seems to be the place where the queens and their attendants were accommodated. On the whole, the structural remains scattered inside the fort, though in ruins, represent the meticulous post medieval layout of fort.

Temple and Inscriptions Udri previously ruled by the Chutus and the Satavahanas was annexed by the Kadambas. Udri referred to as Uddhura, Uddare and Uddharapura in inscriptions was a principal place of the rulers of Jiddulingenadu which was one of the territorial divisions under the Banavasi kingdom during the time of Hoysala Vira Ballala in the 12th century CE. This temple datable to circa 12th century CE is an old Siva temple, which consists of a garbhagriha, a sukanasi and navaranga (mahamandapa). There are two niches on either side of the sukansi doorway. The right niche has a figure of Shanmukha while the left one is empty. By the side of the left niche in the navaranga there is a lotus bearing Yakshi sculpture. The sanctum has a sculpture of Ganesha. In the sukanasi the panel of Saptamatrika is found. The lintel of sukanasi has a seated Jaina sculpture which makes this temple originally belonging to Jaina faith. The pillars in the navaranga are beautifully executed. In the village there are several inscriptions, hero stones and sati-stones bearing inscriptions of 9th-12th centuries CE which refer to sallekhana undertaken by Jaina ascetics and monks.

Bherundeshvara Temple Belligavi, also referred to as Belgami, Belligave, Balligamve, Ballipura in inscriptions was the royal city of Banavasi-12000. It is connected with the demon king Bali according to some lithic records. It was a place of such antiquity that even in the twelth century it was called as Anadirajadhani (capital of ancient cities) and the mother of cities. It was an important centre for learning and contained five mathas and three puras, besides seven Brahmapuris connected with temples. It is also called as DakshinaKedara due to its religious importance. A huge pillar of 9.15m height, is raised over a two-tiered masonry platform of 3.05 m height. It is also called Vijaya Stambha. It was installed by Chamundarayarasa, a general of the Chalukyan emperor Trailokyamalla, in commemoration of a victory. The pillar platform has a shrine enclosing the base of the pillar which has a sculpture of a two headed mythical bird with human body and bird heads known 'Gandabherunda'. The rest of the circular shaft is held by median bands dividing it into many registers. An amalaka cushion capital accommodates an octagonal or multi-faceted palagai.

Kedaresvara Temple The temple of Kedareshwara, datable to circa 12th century CE, is a trikutachala or triple celled temple of the Hoysala style constructed in east-west orientation. The western cell has vestibule or sukanasi and the northern and southern cells have an ardhamandapa, all terminating at a six-pillared mahamandapa, which opens into a spacious pillared sabhamandapa with entrances at north, south and east. Interiorly the mahamandapa walls are pierced with devekoshthas. The western and southern cells have Siva-lingas whereas the northern cell enshrines an image of Vishnu. The exterior is austere save the indented features of ratha, pratiratha and anuratha offset with similar feature repeated in the region of vimana upto finial. These three towers are similar in form to each other, is of tritalaarpitavesara class with the wall details repeated at each tala. The ornate pillared sabhamandapa is the key feature of this temple which has 16-sided fluted polished pillars some of which are treated with leaf decoration. The temple in its heyday attracted a large number of followers of the Kalamukha sect. In the same complex is a miniature replica of the Kedaresvara temple to its north-western side is the triple celled Prabhudeva temple. The wall of the temple is relieved by a madhyabanda with lozenge decorations. The navaranga doorway is well-sculptured and the western shrines have shiva lingas and the northern one has a 17th century CE Veerabhadra image.

Tripurantesvara Temple The Tripurantesvara temple is located to the north-west of the present village of Belligavi. This Hoysala temple datable to circa 12th century CE, has two parallel shrines facing east. Both the shrines have been built over an indented jagati. The shrine to the north has the sanctums at west and north with respective antarala and ardhamandapa opening into a mahamandapa at east. The mahamandapa of this shrine has a central square podium with massive square based circular pillars. Towards the extreme end of the (east) mandapa is a huge couchant bull exquisitely carved. The eastern and western walls of the mahamandapa have devakoshtas. The southern shrine also has a garbhagriha, an ardhamandapa, an open pillared mahamandapa with provision of kakshasana and jagati. This mahamandapa has two entrances at east and south with a projected mukhamandapa at south. The austere jagati with conventional pada, adho-kumuda, high kantha and pattika with kudu arches has yali balustrade steps at east. The temple exhibits exemplary workmanship in its southern shrine and the central part of the open mahamandapa. The mahamandapa has artistic circular lathe-turned pillars which once carried bracket sculptures. The elaborately sculptured doorways have jambs adorned with scrolls, flower dancers and intertwined nagas, carrying a lintel adorned with an ornate Gajalakshmi. The door-jamb of the main shrine have Rati and Manmatha on one side and Daksha Brahma and his consort on the other. The lintel of the doorway has an excellent sculpture of Siva as Gajasuramardana flanked by Brahma, Ganesa, Vishnu, Mahishamardini and other deities.

Somesvara Temple Belligavi, also referred to as Belgami, Belligave, Balligamve, Ballipura in inscriptions was the royal city of Banavasi-12000. It is connected with the demon king Bali according to some lithic records. It was a place of such antiquity that even in the twelth century it was called as Anadirajadhani (capital of ancient cities) and the mother of cities. It was an important centre for learning and contained five mathas and three puras, besides seven Brahmapuris connected with temples. It is also called as DakshinaKedara due to its religious importance. The temple on stylistic grounds is assignable to the late Hoysala period (13th century CE). It has on plan, a garbhagriha, an antarala and a pillared hall which also serves asmukhamandapa. The doorways of the garbhagriha and sukanasi are exquisitely carved. The garbhagriha houses a Sivalinga on a bhadrapitha. The mukhamandapa is provided with two niches in its west wall. The entrance door, very austere, is flanked by pierced windows on either side. In elevation, the adhishtana of the temple over upana has a high pada, plain adhokumuda with dentil decorations. Interestingly, a moulding of urdhvakumuda is provided at east from the hind protion of which the entrance door and perforated screens are built and the space thus available is used as jagati. The jagati is provided with an elephant balustrated steps. The wall is built with plain dressed slabs, the monotony of which is relieved by a madhyabandha of lozenges decoration. The pillars in the mukhamandapa are lathe turned and polished. The exterior walls are plain except for the pilasters at regular intervals.

Inscribed Pillar An inscription in Prakrit of the Satavahana period found at Malavalli, 7 km north-east of Talagunda proves that the place was under the occupation of the Satavahanas right from first-second century CE. Later, it is referred to as Sthanakundura in Kadamba inscriptions. It was the home town of the Kadambas of Vaijayanti (Banavasi) who pushed out the Chutus and established the first indigenous Kannada kingdom around the first quarter of the fourth century CE, with their capital at Banavasi. The inscribed stone pillar in front of the Pranavesvara temple datable to 5th century CE, records that a tank was got excavated by King Kakusthavarman (405-430 CE), for the use of the temple. This is a historical document giving an account of the origin of the Kadambas, their pedigree down to Santivarman, son of Kakustha. It also relates the circumstances leading to the foundation of a kingdom by Mayurasarman and recounts the achievements of his successors. The inscription, in box-headed Kadamba characters and chaste Sanskrit of the kavya style, was composed by poet Kubja. This is one of the most important inscriptions of Karnataka that sheds light on several aspects of Karnataka history and culture.

Pranavesvara Temple An inscription in Prakrit of the Satavahana period found at Malavalli, 7 km north-east of Talagunda proves that the place was under the occupation of the Satavahanas right from first-second century CE. Later, it is referred to as Sthanakundura in Kadamba inscriptions. It was the home town of the Kadambas of Vaijayanti (Banavasi) who pushed out the Chutus and established the first indigenous Kannada kingdom around the first quarter of the fourth century CE, with their capital at Banavasi. The Pranavesvara temple is a small square austere building with a garbhagriha and a sukanasi. The garbhagriha houses a large Siva-linga on a Bhadra pitha. The epigraphical evidence says that the Shivalinga in the garbhagriha was worshipped from the rule of Satakarni rulers and it appears to have been constructed around 4th century CE. A Sanskrit inscription in box-headed characters with an invocation to god Pasupati engraved on the right door-jamb of the Pranavesvara temple, registers a grant of money for feeding thirty residents of Sthanakunjapura by Kakustha of the Bhatari family who was a feudatory of the Kadamba king.

Stamba in front of the Kotakeri Jaina Basadi Inscriptions found in South Kanara region established that the early Alupas, the feudatories of the Kadambas of Banavasi and the Chalukyas of Badami, established their kingdom during 7th century CE in this region. This region is referred to as Tulu-nadu in Sangam works of the early Christian era and Tulu-vishaya in inscriptions. Mangalore (Mangaluru) was the capital of Alupa kingdom during 7th-8th century CE and continued to rule upto 13th-14th century CE. Later, the Hoysalas under Ballala III (1291- 1342 CE) occupied the region until the formation of the Vijayanagara empire around the second quarter of 14th century CE. During the Vijayanagara period, Jainism became popular in the Tulu-nadu. The Manastambha was erected in the vicinity of the Kotakeri basadi and is dated to 15th century CE. The stambha has a square base and fluted shaft and is built over a platform. The pillar is carved intricately with Jaina Tirthankara reliefs in kayotsarga posture. The adhishthana is treated with the conventional kumuda mouldings with a prominent kantha.

Sultan bateri Mangaluru, one of the prominent coastal cities in India, had been an important port town right from the Early Historic times till its occupation by British in 1799 CE. It had been the capital of the Alupa kingdom during the 7th-8th century CE. It was again made capital during the reign of Kulasekhara Alupendra (1160-1220 CE). The Hoysalas under Ballala III (1291-1342 CE) held sway over the region from 1333 CE onwards and it later became a part of Vijayanagara empire around 1345 CE. In 1526 CE, Mangaluru was taken over by the Portuguese. After signing several treaties, they were allowed to construct a factory in Mangaluru in 1670 CE. During the first decade of the 18th century CE, the Nayakas expelled the Portuguese. Haider Ali in 1763 CE captured Mangaluru and built a dockyard. Mangaluru was later captured by the British in 1768 CE and Tipu Sultan took it back in 1794 CE. It again came under the British rule after the defeat and death of Tipu Sultan at Srirangapatna in 1799 CE.

Sultan Battery, a watch tower, is said to have been built by Tipu Sultan to contain the entrance of battleships of the enemies into the Gurpur river. Though it is a simple watch tower, it looks like a miniature fortress with many musket holes for mounting guns all-around.

Mangaladevi Temple Mangaluru, one of the prominent coastal cities in India, had been an important port town right from the Early Historic times till its occupation by British in 1799 CE. The origin of the temple of Mangaladevi is not definitely known. The Ballalas of Attavara are said to have constructed a temple and enshrined an image of Shakti which was inaugurated by Gorakhnatha, a disciple of Matsyendranatha during the 10th century CE. The reconstruction of this temple is attributed to Kundavarma II, an Alupa ruler, in 968 CE and by one of the Nayakas of Bidnur (Ikkeri) in the 17th century CE.

The temple was subjected to much alterations and renovations and on plan has a sandhara garbhagriha, the outer walls of which are pierced by ardhamandapa which in turn opens into a pillared sabhamandapa in south. This is enclosed by a prakara with a mahadvara in south and has mogasale (outer verandah) on its either side. Similarly, a kaisale (inner verandah) is provided on either side of the passage landing into the central courtyard. All along the prakara, there are pillared cloisters presently converted into large halls and rooms. Except the garbhagriha, the rest of the structured units have an austere elevation. The garbhagriha has plain adhishthana mouldings and wall. The superstructure over the garbhagriha is provided with massive tiled eaves supported by heavy wooden beams, which is typical of the coastal region. The pillars of the sabhamandapa are austere and its mildly offsetted shaft has a squarish capital preceded by a neck. The usual slopy tiled roof is encountered over the sabhamandapa.

Jamalabad Fort Jamalabad, also called Nada was formerly known as Narasimhangadi. The village had been named after Narasimha, a Governor of Tuluva dynasty. The present fort was built on the ruins of an old fort by Tipu Sultan in 1794 CE and he named it after his mother Jamalbee. The fort was captured by the British in 1799 CE, but shortly was taken by Thimmanayaka. It was finally recaptured by the British in 1800 CE. The fort is situated on the summit of a lofty granite hill 544.1 m high. The flight of steps cut out of solid rock, on the eastern side of the hill is the only approach to the citadel. The walls, bastions and gateways are built of granite blocks. Inside the citadel are two tanks and a small spring. One of the ruined bastions has a dismantled iron canon of European manufacture.

Inner Courtyard of Chowtar’s Palace at Mudabidiri Mudabidri or Mudabidure was earlier known variously as Bidireyanagara, Venupura and Vamsapura. It had an eight member Merchants’ guild. It was a well knowncentre of Jainism in Tulunadu during the late Medieval period. An inscription belonging to the reign of Kulasekhara III, an Alupa ruler from Mudabidri, dated 1384 CE mentions that the King was ruling from Bidire. The place was also the capital of Chautus, the local chiefs.

The Palace constructed of laterite blocks has a plain exterior. The Palace is an example of the typical vernacular architecture. It has a two storeyed entrance structure on the north. On plan, the Palace is a square structure with a central courtyard open to the sky and rooms and pillared hall on its sides.

The pillared hall on the north and the rooms on the south, east and west form part of the protected area. The protected area is part and parcel of the Palace complex. It has a sloping roof of Mangalore tiles. Wooden ceiling is also provided for the roof. The ceilings of the courtyard and eastern side verandah are decoratively carved.

The Palace is entered from the north, through a pillared hall with a narrow corridor and this forms the north side of the open courtyard. This pillared hall which serves as the portico of the Palace has two rooms on its north east corner. One of the rooms is under the custody of ASI and the other with the owner of the Palace. The west side of the open courtyard has a pillared open space and one room each at its south west and north west side. The east side has three rooms and a wooden carved door that leads to another large courtyard open to the sky and to the remaining areas of the Palace complex. Among the three rooms on the east side, the middle one has the idol of Somnatheswara and is worshipped by the owners of the Palace. The south side has three rooms and a stair that leads to the wooden ceiling of the roof.

The most attractive part of the Palace structure is the open space, located on the west side, with pillars and pilasters of teak wood. The four pillars and two pilasters are sculptured and are of superior order. The pillars are square in shape and tapers towards the top. It consists of a base, shaft and capital that is attached to the ceiling of the roof. The square shaped shaft is divided in to three units by way of providing round shaped bands with fluting and floral and geometric designs. The lowest section (rectangular) is plain except for a panel with carvings of different deities. The middle and top most sections (square) are richly carved with figures of gods and goddess, royal persons, animals and birds etc. Two panels namely the Navanari-kunjara and Panchanari-Turaga are excellent in craftsmanship. The Navanari-kunjara is a composite carved elephant ingeniously made out of the body contour of nine women in various postures, surmounted by a hunter with a bow and arrow. The Panchanari-Turaga depicts five composite women forming the body of a horse with a rider. This wood work is probably the only specimen of ancient wood work (nearly 500 yrs) in this region.

The entire Palace structure comprises two parts – the western portion containing the Centrally Protected Monument namely the Inner Courtyard of the Chowters Palace and the eastern portion containing the residence of the royal family.

Seventeen Jaina Tombs at Mudabidri Mudabidri or Mudabidure, referred to in inscriptions also as Venupura, Vamsapura and Bidireya­nagara is a well known centre of Jainism in Tulunadu. Towards the end of the fourteenth century, the Kalasa ruling family, who were devout Jainas, established their hegemony towards KarkalaMudabidri region. A study of inscriptions from the region makes it clear that most of the structures dedicated to Jaina Pantheon were undertaken by lay patrons, guilds and administrative bodies at the instance of venerable pontiffs. There are many tombs of Jaina priests, only two of them standing apart from the rest being those of wealthy Jaina merchants. These lofty stepped pyrmidal erections consist of several storeys built of carefully cut laterite stones. They were ornamented with tall granite finials, most of which have now fallen down and set up in the compounds of temples or in private houses as curios. Interestingaly, these tombs also resemble the Chinese pagodas.

Kattale Basadi consisting of two small ruined stone built Mantapas, a small Siva Temple containing a linga and a Small Oblong Stone-built Temple Datable to circa 12th century CE, the two basadis built at a distance of 10 m between them are almost similar to each other. Basadi No. 1 measures 10.75m x 6.6 m in length and breadth has a garbhagriha with an insignificant ante­chamber and a U shaped pillared mukhamandapa and is enclosed in a stone built prakara. Inside the sanctum is the image of a Tirtankara. The Basadi has an austere adhistana and plain bhitti covered by heavy massive eave typical to the coastal region where the rainfall is heavy. The pillars of the porch are moderately ornamented and have square bases. The Basadi No. 2 is similar to the above, but with a small mahadwara set into the prakara at east. The sanctum opens into a jagati like ardhamantapa which inturn opens into a four-pillared mukhamantapa. The temple measures 10.25 m x 5.85 m in length and breadth and outside the prakara is the pranala to drain the abluted water built with a trough of 1.10 m x 1.10 m abutting the laterite brick wall at the north. The insignificant Shiva temple has a sanctum accommodating a shivalinga.

Ananthapadmanabha Temple Karkala or ancient Pandyanagari was founded by the Karkala chiefs, who hailed from Humcha in Shimoga district. They claimed to be descendents of Santara chiefs, who ruled Western Ghat region in about tenth-eleventh century CE. They were also called Bairarasas and they ruled this area from early 14th century CE to 16th century CE. The Ananthapadmanabha temple also called SheshashayiAnanteshwara temple was built in 1567 CE. The temple facing north is sandhara and has a garbhagriha of sama-chaturasa type, devoid of sukanasi but fronted by a tirthamandapa with four pillars. The roof of the garbhagriha as well as the tirthamandapa is two-tiered. The roof over the garbhagriha is covered with copper sheets and the raised neck portion of the upper tier is made up of timber and has reliefs depicting gods and goddesses. Interestingly, horizontal stone slabs are provided over the roof of the tirthamandapa and around the garbhagriha. The whole complex is enclosed by a pillared cloister pierced with entrance from the north. A modern shrine abuts the southern wall. The main deity is Vishnu resting on the coils of Adisesha. The image is surrounded by Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha in the niches of the sanctum. Brahma rests on the lotus which issues from Vishnu's navel and Lakshmi attends on Vishnu near the feet. The entire composition is elegantly executed.

Chaturmukha Basadi Karkala or ancient Pandyanagari was founded by the Karkala chiefs, who hailed from Humcha in Shimoga district. They claimed to be descendents of Santara chiefs, who ruled Western Ghat region in about tenth-eleventh century CE. They were also called Bairarasas and they ruled this area from early 14th century CE to 16th century CE. The Basadi, cruciform in plan, has four identical looking entrances from the four quarters leading to the garbhagriha and hence is popularly known as 'ChaturmukhaBasadi'. It was built around 1586 CE by Bhairavendra II, the Kalasa-Karkala ruler. This is the most celebrated structural temple in Karkala and is referred to as Tribhuvana-tilaka-Jina-Caityalaya and Ratnatraya-dhamain inscriptions. The ChaturmukhaBasadi is built in the form of a square mandapa, with a lofty doorway and pillared portico on each of its four sides and a pillared verandah running all round over which rests a massive eave. The roof is flat and formed of massive granite slabs. It has life size statues of three Tirthankaras besides small images of 24 Tirthankaras and Padmavati Yakshi in black stone.

Jaina Statue of Gommatesvara The monolith of Bahubali on the peak of a granite hill, 91.5 m above MSL, was erected by king Virapandya of Kalasa-Karkala kingdom in 1432 CE on the advice of his preceptor Lalitakirti. Measuring 12.8 m in height, it stands on a 1.5 m high moulded platform and is further enclosed by a high cloistered prakara pierced with an entrance from the south. In the entrance room, a few loose sculptures of Jaina Tirthankaras are displayed. Facing the entrance is a manastambha carrying an image of seated Yaksha within a niche. The statue of Bahubali, second in importance only to the massive monolith at Sravanabelagola, is rendered striking by its situation on the margin of a picturesque lake called Ramasamudra. The statue standing in the kayotsarga pose bears all mahapurushalakshanas such as elongated ears, palms stretching upto knees, curly hair, etc. the depiction of ant-hill and creepers entwining both arms, however, lacks natural flow.

Jaina Statue of Gommatesvara Karkala or ancient Pandyanagari attained political and cultural importance from the time of Kalasa-Karkala established by the Bhairarasa Odeyas (13th to 16th century CE) who appears to be descendant of the Santara chiefs, ruling over the Western Ghat region in about 10th-11th century CE. The construction of the Nemisvara-Chaityalaya at Karkala is attributed in an inscription of Bhairava I, who established the hegemony of the Kalasa house over Karkala region for the first time, in the latter half of the 14th century CE. His grandson, Pandya by name, got erected the manastambha, in front of the Neminatha Basadi towards the middle of the 15th century CE. This colossal manastambha measuring 16.5 m in height was constructed over a platform with conventional mouldings in a stepped pyramidal order. For the colossal pillar, the square chamfered base appears to be small. The shaft is divided into as many as ten registers of which, the lower portion is a square base followed by circular corrugated register and five other registers with circular bands. The apex of the shaft is treated with series of tassels over which a slightly bulbous tip accommodates a multifaceted, stellate capital over which a huge palagai or abacus carries a small turreted shrine. Inside the shrine is an exquisitely carved Yaksha seated in padmasana.